Hibernate.orgCommunity Documentation

HIBERNATE - 符合Java习惯的关系数据库持久化

HIBERNATE Annotations 注解

HIBERNATE API 查询

Hibernate参考文档

Gavin KingChristian BauerMax Rydahl AndersenEmmanuel BernardSteve Ebersole
and thanks to James Cobb (Graphic Design)、Cheyenne Weaver (Graphic Design)和Cao Xiaogang

3.3.2.GA

Legal Notice

June 24, 2009


前言
1. Feedback
1. Tutorial
1.1. 第一部分 - 第一个Hibernate应用程序
1.1.1. Setup
1.1.2. 第一个class
1.1.3. 映射文件
1.1.4. Hibernate配置
1.1.5. Building with Maven
1.1.6. 启动和辅助类
1.1.7. 加载并存储对象
1.2. 第二部分 - 关联映射
1.2.1. 映射Person类
1.2.2. 单向Set-based的关联
1.2.3. 使关联工作
1.2.4. 值类型的集合
1.2.5. 双向关联
1.2.6. 使双向连起来
1.3. 第三部分 - EventManager web应用程序
1.3.1. 编写基本的servlet
1.3.2. 最后,当处理与渲染都结束的时候,这个工作单元就结束了。假若在处理或渲染的时候有任何错误发生,会抛出一个异常,回滚数据库事务。这样,session-per-request模式就完成了。为了避免在每个servlet中都编写事务边界界定的代码,可以考虑写一个servlet 过滤器(filter)来更好地解决。关于这一模式的更多信息,请参阅Hibernate网站和Wiki,这一模式叫做Open Session in View-只要你考虑用JSP来渲染你的视图(view),而不是在servlet中,你就会很快用到它。
1.3.3. 部署与测试
1.4. 总结
2. 体系结构(Architecture)
2.1. 概况(Overview)
2.2. 实例状态
2.3. JMX整合
2.4. 对JCA的支持
2.5. Contextual sessions
3. 配置
3.1. 可编程的配置方式
3.2. 获得SessionFactory
3.3. JDBC连接
3.4. 可选的配置属性
3.4.1. SQL方言
3.4.2. 外连接抓取(Outer Join Fetching)
3.4.3. 二进制流 (Binary Streams)
3.4.4. 二级缓存与查询缓存
3.4.5. 查询语言中的替换
3.4.6. Hibernate的统计(statistics)机制
3.5. 日志
3.6. 实现NamingStrategy
3.7. XML配置文件
3.8. J2EE应用程序服务器的集成
3.8.1. 事务策略配置
3.8.2. JNDI绑定的SessionFactory
3.8.3. 在JTA环境下使用Current Session context (当前session上下文)管理
3.8.4. JMX部署
4. 持久化类(Persistent Classes)
4.1. 一个简单的POJO例子
4.1.1. 实现一个默认的(即无参数的)构造方法(constructor)
4.1.2. 提供一个标识属性(identifier property)(可选)
4.1.3. 使用非final的类 (可选)
4.1.4. 为持久化字段声明访问器(accessors)和是否可变的标志(mutators)(可选)
4.2. 实现继承(Inheritance)
4.3. 实现equals()hashCode()
4.4. 动态模型(Dynamic models)
4.5. 元组片断映射(Tuplizers)
4.6. EntityNameResolvers
5. 对象/关系数据库映射基础(Basic O/R Mapping)
5.1. 映射定义(Mapping declaration)
5.1.1. Doctype
5.1.2. Hibernate-mapping
5.1.3. Class
5.1.4. id
5.1.5. Enhanced identifier generators
5.1.6. Identifier generator optimization
5.1.7. composite-id
5.1.8. Discriminator
5.1.9. Version (optional)
5.1.10. Timestamp (optional)
5.1.11. Property
5.1.12. Many-to-one
5.1.13. One-to-one
5.1.14. Natural-id
5.1.15. Component and dynamic-component
5.1.16. Properties
5.1.17. Subclass
5.1.18. Joined-subclass
5.1.19. Union-subclass
5.1.20. Join
5.1.21. Key
5.1.22. Column and formula elements
5.1.23. Import
5.1.24. Any
5.2. Hibernate types
5.2.1. 实体(Entities)和值(values)
5.2.2. 基本值类型
5.2.3. 自定义值类型
5.3. 多次映射同一个类
5.4. SQL中引号包围的标识符
5.5. 其他元数据(Metadata)
5.5.1. 使用 XDoclet 标记
5.5.2. 使用 JDK 5.0 的注解(Annotation)
5.6. Generated properties
5.7. Auxiliary database objects
6. Collection mapping
6.1. 持久化集合类(Persistent collections)
6.2. 集合映射( Collection mappings )
6.2.1. 集合外键(Collection foreign keys)
6.2.2. 集合元素(Collection elements)
6.2.3. 索引集合类(Indexed collections)
6.2.4. 对于一个值集合, 我们使用<element>标签。
6.2.5. 一对多关联通过外键连接两个类对应的表,而没有中间集合表。 这个关系模型失去了一些Java集合的语义:
6.3. 高级集合映射(Advanced collection mappings)
6.3.1. 有序集合(Sorted collections)
6.3.2. 双向关联(Bidirectional associations)
6.3.3. 双向关联,涉及有序集合类
6.3.4. 三重关联(Ternary associations)
6.3.5. 使用<idbag>
6.4. 集合例子(Collection example)
7. 关联关系映射
7.1. 介绍
7.2. 单向关联(Unidirectional associations)
7.2.1. Many-to-one
7.2.2. One-to-one
7.2.3. One-to-many
7.3. 使用连接表的单向关联(Unidirectional associations with join tables)
7.3.1. One-to-many
7.3.2. Many-to-one
7.3.3. One-to-one
7.3.4. Many-to-many
7.4. 双向关联(Bidirectional associations)
7.4.1. one-to-many / many-to-one
7.4.2. One-to-one
7.5. 使用连接表的双向关联(Bidirectional associations with join tables)
7.5.1. one-to-many / many-to-one
7.5.2. 一对一(one to one)
7.5.3. Many-to-many
7.6. 更复杂的关联映射
8. 组件(Component)映射
8.1. 依赖对象(Dependent objects)
8.2. 在集合中出现的依赖对象 (Collections of dependent objects)
8.3. 组件作为Map的索引(Components as Map indices )
8.4. 组件作为联合标识符(Components as composite identifiers)
8.5. 动态组件 (Dynamic components)
9. Inheritance mapping
9.1. The three strategies
9.1.1. 每个类分层结构一张表(Table per class hierarchy)
9.1.2. 每个子类一张表(Table per subclass)
9.1.3. Table per subclass: using a discriminator
9.1.4. 混合使用“每个类分层结构一张表”和“每个子类一张表”
9.1.5. 每个具体类一张表(Table per concrete class)
9.1.6. Table per concrete class using implicit polymorphism
9.1.7. 隐式多态和其他继承映射混合使用
9.2. 限制
10. 与对象共事
10.1. Hibernate对象状态(object states)
10.2. 使对象持久化
10.3. 装载对象
10.4. 查询
10.4.1. 执行查询
10.4.2. 过滤集合
10.4.3. 条件查询(Criteria queries)
10.4.4. 使用原生SQL的查询
10.5. 修改持久对象
10.6. 修改脱管(Detached)对象
10.7. 自动状态检测
10.8. 删除持久对象
10.9. 在两个不同数据库间复制对象
10.10. Session刷出(flush)
10.11. 传播性持久化(transitive persistence)
10.12. 使用元数据
11. Transactions and Concurrency
11.1. Session和事务范围(transaction scope)
11.1.1. 操作单元(Unit of work)
11.1.2. 长对话
11.1.3. 关注对象标识(Considering object identity)
11.1.4. 常见问题
11.2. 数据库事务声明
11.2.1. 非托管环境
11.2.2. 使用JTA
11.2.3. 异常处理
11.2.4. 事务超时
11.3. 乐观并发控制(Optimistic concurrency control)
11.3.1. 应用程序级别的版本检查(Application version checking)
11.3.2. 扩展周期的session和自动版本化
11.3.3. 脱管对象(deatched object)和自动版本化
11.3.4. 定制自动版本化行为
11.4. Pessimistic locking
11.5. Connection release modes
12. 拦截器与事件(Interceptors and events)
12.1. 拦截器(Interceptors)
12.2. 事件系统(Event system)
12.3. Hibernate的声明式安全机制
13. 批量处理(Batch processing)
13.1. 批量插入(Batch inserts)
13.2. 批量更新(Batch updates)
13.3. StatelessSession (无状态session)接口
13.4. DML(数据操作语言)风格的操作(DML-style operations)
14. HQL: Hibernate查询语言
14.1. 大小写敏感性问题
14.2. from子句
14.3. 关联(Association)与连接(Join)
14.4. join 语法的形式
14.5. Referring to identifier property
14.6. select子句
14.7. 聚集函数
14.8. 多态查询
14.9. where子句
14.10. 表达式
14.11. order by子句
14.12. group by子句
14.13. 子查询
14.14. HQL示例
14.15. 批量的UPDATE和DELETE
14.16. 小技巧 & 小窍门
14.17. translator-credits
14.18. Row value constructor syntax
15. 条件查询(Criteria Queries)
15.1. 创建一个Criteria 实例
15.2. 限制结果集内容
15.3. 结果集排序
15.4. 关联
15.5. 动态关联抓取
15.6. 查询示例
15.7. 投影(Projections)、聚合(aggregation)和分组(grouping)
15.8. 离线(detached)查询和子查询
15.9. 根据自然标识查询(Queries by natural identifier)
16. Native SQL查询
16.1. 使用SQLQuery
16.1.1. 标量查询(Scalar queries)
16.1.2. 实体查询(Entity queries)
16.1.3. 处理关联和集合类(Handling associations and collections)
16.1.4. 返回多个实体(Returning multiple entities)
16.1.5. 返回非受管实体(Returning non-managed entities)
16.1.6. 处理继承(Handling inheritance)
16.1.7. 参数(Parameters)
16.2. 命名SQL查询
16.2.1. 使用return-property来明确地指定字段/别名
16.2.2. 使用存储过程来查询
16.3. 定制SQL用来create,update和delete
16.4. 定制装载SQL
17. 过滤数据
17.1. Hibernate 过滤器(filters)
18. XML映射
18.1. 用XML数据进行工作
18.1.1. 指定同时映射XML和类
18.1.2. 只定义XML映射
18.2. XML映射元数据
18.3. 操作XML数据
19. 提升性能
19.1. 抓取策略(Fetching strategies)
19.1.1. 操作延迟加载的关联
19.1.2. 调整抓取策略(Tuning fetch strategies)
19.1.3. 单端关联代理(Single-ended association proxies)
19.1.4. 实例化集合和代理(Initializing collections and proxies)
19.1.5. 使用批量抓取(Using batch fetching)
19.1.6. 使用子查询抓取(Using subselect fetching)
19.1.7. 使用延迟属性抓取(Using lazy property fetching)
19.2. 二级缓存(The Second Level Cache)
19.2.1. 缓存映射(Cache mappings)
19.2.2. 策略:只读缓存(Strategy: read only)
19.2.3. 策略:读/写缓存(Strategy: read/write)
19.2.4. 策略:非严格读/写缓存(Strategy: nonstrict read/write)
19.2.5. 策略:事务缓存(transactional)
19.2.6. Cache-provider/concurrency-strategy compatibility
19.3. 管理缓存(Managing the caches)
19.4. 查询缓存(The Query Cache)
19.5. 理解集合性能(Understanding Collection performance)
19.5.1. 分类(Taxonomy)
19.5.2. Lists, maps 和sets用于更新效率最高
19.5.3. Bag和list是反向集合类中效率最高的
19.5.4. 一次性删除(One shot delete)
19.6. 监测性能(Monitoring performance)
19.6.1. 监测SessionFactory
19.6.2. 数据记录(Metrics)
20. 工具箱指南
20.1. Schema自动生成(Automatic schema generation)
20.1.1. 对schema定制化(Customizing the schema)
20.1.2. 运行该工具
20.1.3. 属性(Properties)
20.1.4. 使用Ant(Using Ant)
20.1.5. 对schema的增量更新(Incremental schema updates)
20.1.6. 用Ant来增量更新schema(Using Ant for incremental schema updates)
20.1.7. Schema 校验
20.1.8. 使用Ant进行schema校验
21. 示例:父子关系(Parent Child Relationships)
21.1. 关于collections需要注意的一点
21.2. 双向的一对多关系(Bidirectional one-to-many)
21.3. 级联生命周期(Cascading life cycle)
21.4. 级联与未保存值(Cascades and unsaved-value
21.5. 结论
22. 示例:Weblog 应用程序
22.1. 持久化类
22.2. Hibernate 映射
22.3. Hibernate 代码
23. 示例:复杂映射实例
23.1. Employer(雇主)/Employee(雇员)
23.2. Author(作家)/Work(作品)
23.3. Customer(客户)/Order(订单)/Product(产品)
23.4. 杂例
23.4.1. "Typed" one-to-one association
23.4.2. Composite key example
23.4.3. 共有组合键属性的多对多(Many-to-many with shared composite key attribute)
23.4.4. Content based discrimination
23.4.5. Associations on alternate keys
24. 最佳实践(Best Practices)
25. Database Portability Considerations
25.1. Portability Basics
25.2. Dialect
25.3. Dialect resolution
25.4. Identifier generation
25.5. Database functions
25.6. Type mappings
References

Working with object-oriented software and a relational database can be cumbersome and time consuming in today's enterprise environments. Hibernate is an Object/Relational Mapping tool for Java environments. The term Object/Relational Mapping (ORM) refers to the technique of mapping a data representation from an object model to a relational data model with a SQL-based schema.

Hibernate not only takes care of the mapping from Java classes to database tables (and from Java data types to SQL data types), but also provides data query and retrieval facilities. It can also significantly reduce development time otherwise spent with manual data handling in SQL and JDBC.

Hibernate's goal is to relieve the developer from 95 percent of common data persistence related programming tasks. Hibernate may not be the best solution for data-centric applications that only use stored-procedures to implement the business logic in the database, it is most useful with object-oriented domain models and business logic in the Java-based middle-tier. However, Hibernate can certainly help you to remove or encapsulate vendor-specific SQL code and will help with the common task of result set translation from a tabular representation to a graph of objects.

如果你对Hibernate和对象/关系数据库映射还是个新手,或者甚至对Java也不熟悉,请按照下面的步骤来学习。

  1. 阅读第 1 章 Tutorial,这是一篇包含详细的逐步指导的指南。本指南的源代码包含在发行包中,你可以在doc/reference/tutorial/目录下找到。

  2. 阅读第 2 章 体系结构(Architecture)来理解Hibernate可以使用的环境。

  3. View the eg/ directory in the Hibernate distribution. It contains a simple standalone application. Copy your JDBC driver to the lib/ directory and edit etc/hibernate.properties, specifying correct values for your database. From a command prompt in the distribution directory, type ant eg (using Ant), or under Windows, type build eg.

  4. Use this reference documentation as your primary source of information. Consider reading [JPwH] if you need more help with application design, or if you prefer a step-by-step tutorial. Also visit http://caveatemptor.hibernate.org and download the example application from [JPwH].

  5. 在Hibernate 的网站上可以找到经常提问的问题与解答(FAQ)。

  6. Links to third party demos, examples, and tutorials are maintained on the Hibernate website.

  7. Hibernate网站的“社区(Community Area)”是讨论关于设计模式以及很多整合方案(Tomcat, JBoss AS, Struts, EJB,等等)的好地方。

If you have questions, use the user forum linked on the Hibernate website. We also provide a JIRA issue tracking system for bug reports and feature requests. If you are interested in the development of Hibernate, join the developer mailing list. If you are interested in translating this documentation into your language, contact us on the developer mailing list.

商业开发、产品支持和Hibernate培训可以通过JBoss Inc.获得。(请查阅:http://www.hibernate.org/SupportTraining/)。 Hibernate是一个专业的开放源代码项目(Professional Open Source project),也是JBoss Enterprise Middleware System(JEMS),JBoss企业级中间件系统的一个核心组件。

Use Hibernate JIRA to report errors or request enhacements to this documentation.

Intended for new users, this chapter provides an step-by-step introduction to Hibernate, starting with a simple application using an in-memory database. The tutorial is based on an earlier tutorial developed by Michael Gloegl. All code is contained in the tutorials/web directory of the project source.

重要

This tutorial expects the user have knowledge of both Java and SQL. If you have a limited knowledge of JAVA or SQL, it is advised that you start with a good introduction to that technology prior to attempting to learn Hibernate.

注意

The distribution contains another example application under the tutorial/eg project source directory.

For this example, we will set up a small database application that can store events we want to attend and information about the host(s) of these events.

注意

Although you can use whatever database you feel comfortable using, we will use HSQLDB (an in-memory, Java database) to avoid describing installation/setup of any particular database servers.

The first thing we need to do is to set up the development environment. We will be using the "standard layout" advocated by alot of build tools such as Maven. Maven, in particular, has a good resource describing this layout. As this tutorial is to be a web application, we will be creating and making use of src/main/java, src/main/resources and src/main/webapp directories.

We will be using Maven in this tutorial, taking advantage of its transitive dependency management capabilities as well as the ability of many IDEs to automatically set up a project for us based on the maven descriptor.

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0"
         
		 xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">

    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

    <groupId>org.hibernate.tutorials</groupId>
    <artifactId>hibernate-tutorial</artifactId>
    <version>1.0.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
    <name>First Hibernate Tutorial</name>

    <build>
         <!-- we dont want the version to be part of the generated war file name -->
         <finalName>${artifactId}</finalName>
    </build>

    <dependencies>
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.hibernate</groupId>
            <artifactId>hibernate-core</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Because this is a web app, we also have a dependency on the servlet api. -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>servlet-api</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Hibernate uses slf4j for logging, for our purposes here use the simple backend -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.slf4j</groupId>
            <artifactId>slf4j-simple</artifactId>
        </dependency>

        <!-- Hibernate gives you a choice of bytecode providers between cglib and javassist -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javassist</groupId>
            <artifactId>javassist</artifactId>
        </dependency>
    </dependencies>

</project>

提示

It is not a requirement to use Maven. If you wish to use something else to build this tutoial (such as Ant), the layout will remain the same. The only change is that you will need to manually account for all the needed dependencies. If you use something like Ivy providing transitive dependency management you would still use the dependencies mentioned below. Otherwise, you'd need to grab all dependencies, both explicit and transitive, and add them to the project's classpath. If working from the Hibernate distribution bundle, this would mean hibernate3.jar, all artifacts in the lib/required directory and all files from either the lib/bytecode/cglib or lib/bytecode/javassist directory; additionally you will need both the servlet-api jar and one of the slf4j logging backends.

Save this file as pom.xml in the project root directory.

Next, we create a class that represents the event we want to store in the database; it is a simple JavaBean class with some properties:

package org.hibernate.tutorial.domain;

import java.util.Date;

public class Event {
    private Long id;

    private String title;
    private Date date;

    public Event() {}

    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    private void setId(Long id) {
        this.id = id;
    }

    public Date getDate() {
        return date;
    }

    public void setDate(Date date) {
        this.date = date;
    }

    public String getTitle() {
        return title;
    }

    public void setTitle(String title) {
        this.title = title;
    }
}

This class uses standard JavaBean naming conventions for property getter and setter methods, as well as private visibility for the fields. Although this is the recommended design, it is not required. Hibernate can also access fields directly, the benefit of accessor methods is robustness for refactoring.

The id property holds a unique identifier value for a particular event. All persistent entity classes (there are less important dependent classes as well) will need such an identifier property if we want to use the full feature set of Hibernate. In fact, most applications, especially web applications, need to distinguish objects by identifier, so you should consider this a feature rather than a limitation. However, we usually do not manipulate the identity of an object, hence the setter method should be private. Only Hibernate will assign identifiers when an object is saved. Hibernate can access public, private, and protected accessor methods, as well as public, private and protected fields directly. The choice is up to you and you can match it to fit your application design.

The no-argument constructor is a requirement for all persistent classes; Hibernate has to create objects for you, using Java Reflection. The constructor can be private, however package or public visibility is required for runtime proxy generation and efficient data retrieval without bytecode instrumentation.

Save this file to the src/main/java/org/hibernate/tutorial/domain directory.

Hibernate需要知道怎样去加载(load)和存储(store)持久化类的对象。这正是Hibernate映射文件发挥作用的地方。映射文件告诉Hibernate它,应该访问数据库(database)里面的哪个表(table)及应该使用表里面的哪些字段(column)。

一个映射文件的基本结构看起来像这样:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC
        "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD 3.0//EN"
        "http://hibernate.sourceforge.net/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd">

<hibernate-mapping package="org.hibernate.tutorial.domain">
[...]
</hibernate-mapping>

Hibernate DTD is sophisticated. You can use it for auto-completion of XML mapping elements and attributes in your editor or IDE. Opening up the DTD file in your text editor is the easiest way to get an overview of all elements and attributes, and to view the defaults, as well as some comments. Hibernate will not load the DTD file from the web, but first look it up from the classpath of the application. The DTD file is included in hibernate-core.jar (it is also included in the hibernate3.jar, if using the distribution bundle).

Between the two hibernate-mapping tags, include a class element. All persistent entity classes (again, there might be dependent classes later on, which are not first-class entities) need a mapping to a table in the SQL database:

<hibernate-mapping package="org.hibernate.tutorial.domain">

    <class name="Event" table="EVENTS">

    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

So far we have told Hibernate how to persist and load object of class Event to the table EVENTS. Each instance is now represented by a row in that table. Now we can continue by mapping the unique identifier property to the tables primary key. As we do not want to care about handling this identifier, we configure Hibernate's identifier generation strategy for a surrogate primary key column:

<hibernate-mapping package="org.hibernate.tutorial.domain">

    <class name="Event" table="EVENTS">
        <id name="id" column="EVENT_ID">
            <generator class="native"/>
        </id>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

The id element is the declaration of the identifier property. The name="id" mapping attribute declares the name of the JavaBean property and tells Hibernate to use the getId() and setId() methods to access the property. The column attribute tells Hibernate which column of the EVENTS table holds the primary key value.

The nested generator element specifies the identifier generation strategy (aka how are identifier values generated?). In this case we choose native, which offers a level of portability depending on the configured database dialect. Hibernate supports database generated, globally unique, as well as application assigned, identifiers. Identifier value generation is also one of Hibernate's many extension points and you can plugin in your own strategy.

Lastly, we need to tell Hibernate about the remaining entity class properties. By default, no properties of the class are considered persistent:

<hibernate-mapping package="org.hibernate.tutorial.domain">

    <class name="Event" table="EVENTS">
        <id name="id" column="EVENT_ID">
            <generator class="native"/>
        </id>
        <property name="date" type="timestamp" column="EVENT_DATE"/>
        <property name="title"/>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

Similar to the id element, the name attribute of the property element tells Hibernate which getter and setter methods to use. In this case, Hibernate will search for getDate(), setDate(), getTitle() and setTitle() methods.

注意

Why does the date property mapping include the column attribute, but the title does not? Without the column attribute, Hibernate by default uses the property name as the column name. This works for title, however, date is a reserved keyword in most databases so you will need to map it to a different name.

The title mapping also lacks a type attribute. The types declared and used in the mapping files are not Java data types; they are not SQL database types either. These types are called Hibernate mapping types, converters which can translate from Java to SQL data types and vice versa. Again, Hibernate will try to determine the correct conversion and mapping type itself if the type attribute is not present in the mapping. In some cases this automatic detection using Reflection on the Java class might not have the default you expect or need. This is the case with the date property. Hibernate cannot know if the property, which is of java.util.Date, should map to a SQL date, timestamp, or time column. Full date and time information is preserved by mapping the property with a timestamp converter.

提示

Hibernate makes this mapping type determination using reflection when the mapping files are processed. This can take time and resources, so if startup performance is important you should consider explicitly defining the type to use.

Save this mapping file as src/main/resources/org/hibernate/tutorial/domain/Event.hbm.xml.

At this point, you should have the persistent class and its mapping file in place. It is now time to configure Hibernate. First let's set up HSQLDB to run in "server mode"

We will utilize the Maven exec plugin to launch the HSQLDB server by running: mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="org.hsqldb.Server" -Dexec.args="-database.0 file:target/data/tutorial" You will see it start up and bind to a TCP/IP socket; this is where our application will connect later. If you want to start with a fresh database during this tutorial, shutdown HSQLDB, delete all files in the target/data directory, and start HSQLDB again.

Hibernate will be connecting to the database on behalf of your application, so it needs to know how to obtain connections. For this tutorial we will be using a standalone connection pool (as opposed to a javax.sql.DataSource). Hibernate comes with support for two third-party open source JDBC connection pools: c3p0 and proxool. However, we will be using the Hibernate built-in connection pool for this tutorial.

小心

The built-in Hibernate connection pool is in no way intended for production use. It lacks several features found on any decent connection pool.

For Hibernate's configuration, we can use a simple hibernate.properties file, a more sophisticated hibernate.cfg.xml file, or even complete programmatic setup. Most users prefer the XML configuration file:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-configuration PUBLIC
        "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Configuration DTD 3.0//EN"
        "http://hibernate.sourceforge.net/hibernate-configuration-3.0.dtd">

<hibernate-configuration>

    <session-factory>

        <!-- Database connection settings -->
        <property name="connection.driver_class">org.hsqldb.jdbcDriver</property>
        <property name="connection.url">jdbc:hsqldb:hsql://localhost</property>
        <property name="connection.username">sa</property>
        <property name="connection.password"></property>

        <!-- JDBC connection pool (use the built-in) -->
        <property name="connection.pool_size">1</property>

        <!-- SQL dialect -->
        <property name="dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.HSQLDialect</property>

        <!-- Enable Hibernate's automatic session context management -->
        <property name="current_session_context_class">thread</property>

        <!-- Disable the second-level cache  -->
        <property name="cache.provider_class">org.hibernate.cache.NoCacheProvider</property>

        <!-- Echo all executed SQL to stdout -->
        <property name="show_sql">true</property>

        <!-- Drop and re-create the database schema on startup -->
        <property name="hbm2ddl.auto">update</property>

        <mapping resource="org/hibernate/tutorial/domain/Event.hbm.xml"/>

    </session-factory>

</hibernate-configuration>

注意

Notice that this configuration file specifies a different DTD

You configure Hibernate's SessionFactory. SessionFactory is a global factory responsible for a particular database. If you have several databases, for easier startup you should use several <session-factory> configurations in several configuration files.

The first four property elements contain the necessary configuration for the JDBC connection. The dialect property element specifies the particular SQL variant Hibernate generates.

提示

In most cases, Hibernate is able to properly determine which dialect to use. See 第 25.3 节 “Dialect resolution” for more information.

Hibernate's automatic session management for persistence contexts is particularly useful in this context. The hbm2ddl.auto option turns on automatic generation of database schemas directly into the database. This can also be turned off by removing the configuration option, or redirected to a file with the help of the SchemaExport Ant task. Finally, add the mapping file(s) for persistent classes to the configuration.

Save this file as hibernate.cfg.xml into the src/main/resources directory.

We will now build the tutorial with Maven. You will need to have Maven installed; it is available from the Maven download page. Maven will read the /pom.xml file we created earlier and know how to perform some basic project tasks. First, lets run the compile goal to make sure we can compile everything so far:

[hibernateTutorial]$ mvn compile
[INFO] Scanning for projects...
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Building First Hibernate Tutorial
[INFO]    task-segment: [compile]
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] [resources:resources]
[INFO] Using default encoding to copy filtered resources.
[INFO] [compiler:compile]
[INFO] Compiling 1 source file to /home/steve/projects/sandbox/hibernateTutorial/target/classes
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] BUILD SUCCESSFUL
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------
[INFO] Total time: 2 seconds
[INFO] Finished at: Tue Jun 09 12:25:25 CDT 2009
[INFO] Final Memory: 5M/547M
[INFO] ------------------------------------------------------------------------

It is time to load and store some Event objects, but first you have to complete the setup with some infrastructure code. You have to startup Hibernate by building a global org.hibernate.SessionFactory object and storing it somewhere for easy access in application code. A org.hibernate.SessionFactory is used to obtain org.hibernate.Session instances. A org.hibernate.Session represents a single-threaded unit of work. The org.hibernate.SessionFactory is a thread-safe global object that is instantiated once.

We will create a HibernateUtil helper class that takes care of startup and makes accessing the org.hibernate.SessionFactory more convenient.

package org.hibernate.tutorial.util;

import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;

public class HibernateUtil {

    private static final SessionFactory sessionFactory = buildSessionFactory();

    private static SessionFactory buildSessionFactory() {
        try {
            // Create the SessionFactory from hibernate.cfg.xml
            return new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory();
        }
        catch (Throwable ex) {
            // Make sure you log the exception, as it might be swallowed
            System.err.println("Initial SessionFactory creation failed." + ex);
            throw new ExceptionInInitializerError(ex);
        }
    }

    public static SessionFactory getSessionFactory() {
        return sessionFactory;
    }

}

Save this code as src/main/java/org/hibernate/tutorial/util/HibernateUtil.java

This class not only produces the global org.hibernate.SessionFactory reference in its static initializer; it also hides the fact that it uses a static singleton. We might just as well have looked up the org.hibernate.SessionFactory reference from JNDI in an application server or any other location for that matter.

If you give the org.hibernate.SessionFactory a name in your configuration, Hibernate will try to bind it to JNDI under that name after it has been built. Another, better option is to use a JMX deployment and let the JMX-capable container instantiate and bind a HibernateService to JNDI. Such advanced options are discussed later.

You now need to configure a logging system. Hibernate uses commons logging and provides two choices: Log4j and JDK 1.4 logging. Most developers prefer Log4j: copy log4j.properties from the Hibernate distribution in the etc/ directory to your src directory, next to hibernate.cfg.xml. If you prefer to have more verbose output than that provided in the example configuration, you can change the settings. By default, only the Hibernate startup message is shown on stdout.

The tutorial infrastructure is complete and you are now ready to do some real work with Hibernate.

We are now ready to start doing some real worjk with Hibernate. Let's start by writing an EventManager class with a main() method:

package org.hibernate.tutorial;

import org.hibernate.Session;

import java.util.*;

import org.hibernate.tutorial.domain.Event;
import org.hibernate.tutorial.util.HibernateUtil;

public class EventManager {

    public static void main(String[] args) {
        EventManager mgr = new EventManager();

        if (args[0].equals("store")) {
            mgr.createAndStoreEvent("My Event", new Date());
        }

        HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().close();
    }

    private void createAndStoreEvent(String title, Date theDate) {
        Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession();
        session.beginTransaction();

        Event theEvent = new Event();
        theEvent.setTitle(title);
        theEvent.setDate(theDate);
        session.save(theEvent);

        session.getTransaction().commit();
    }

}

In createAndStoreEvent() we created a new Event object and handed it over to Hibernate. At that point, Hibernate takes care of the SQL and executes an INSERT on the database.

A org.hibernate.Session is designed to represent a single unit of work (a single atmoic piece of work to be performed). For now we will keep things simple and assume a one-to-one granularity between a Hibernate org.hibernate.Session and a database transaction. To shield our code from the actual underlying transaction system we use the Hibernate org.hibernate.Transaction API. In this particular case we are using JDBC-based transactional semantics, but it could also run with JTA.

What does sessionFactory.getCurrentSession() do? First, you can call it as many times and anywhere you like once you get hold of your org.hibernate.SessionFactory. The getCurrentSession() method always returns the "current" unit of work. Remember that we switched the configuration option for this mechanism to "thread" in our src/main/resources/hibernate.cfg.xml? Due to that setting, the context of a current unit of work is bound to the current Java thread that executes the application.

A org.hibernate.Session begins when the first call to getCurrentSession() is made for the current thread. It is then bound by Hibernate to the current thread. When the transaction ends, either through commit or rollback, Hibernate automatically unbinds the org.hibernate.Session from the thread and closes it for you. If you call getCurrentSession() again, you get a new org.hibernate.Session and can start a new unit of work.

Related to the unit of work scope, should the Hibernate org.hibernate.Session be used to execute one or several database operations? The above example uses one org.hibernate.Session for one operation. However this is pure coincidence; the example is just not complex enough to show any other approach. The scope of a Hibernate org.hibernate.Session is flexible but you should never design your application to use a new Hibernate org.hibernate.Session for every database operation. Even though it is used in the following examples, consider session-per-operation an anti-pattern. A real web application is shown later in the tutorial which will help illustrate this.

See 第 11 章 Transactions and Concurrency for more information about transaction handling and demarcation. The previous example also skipped any error handling and rollback.

To run this, we will make use of the Maven exec plugin to call our class with the necessary classpath setup: mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="org.hibernate.tutorial.EventManager" -Dexec.args="store"

注意

You may need to perform mvn compile first.

You should see Hibernate starting up and, depending on your configuration, lots of log output. Towards the end, the following line will be displayed:

[java] Hibernate: insert into EVENTS (EVENT_DATE, title, EVENT_ID) values (?, ?, ?)

This is the INSERT executed by Hibernate.

To list stored events an option is added to the main method:

        if (args[0].equals("store")) {
            mgr.createAndStoreEvent("My Event", new Date());
        }
        else if (args[0].equals("list")) {
            List events = mgr.listEvents();
            for (int i = 0; i < events.size(); i++) {
                Event theEvent = (Event) events.get(i);
                System.out.println(
                        "Event: " + theEvent.getTitle() + " Time: " + theEvent.getDate()
                );
            }
        }

A new listEvents() method is also added:

    private List listEvents() {
        Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession();
        session.beginTransaction();
        List result = session.createQuery("from Event").list();
        session.getTransaction().commit();
        return result;
    }

Here, we are using a Hibernate Query Language (HQL) query to load all existing Event objects from the database. Hibernate will generate the appropriate SQL, send it to the database and populate Event objects with the data. You can create more complex queries with HQL. See 第 14 章 HQL: Hibernate查询语言 for more information.

Now we can call our new functionality, again using the Maven exec plugin: mvn exec:java -Dexec.mainClass="org.hibernate.tutorial.EventManager" -Dexec.args="list"

So far we have mapped a single persistent entity class to a table in isolation. Let's expand on that a bit and add some class associations. We will add people to the application and store a list of events in which they participate.

By adding a collection of events to the Person class, you can easily navigate to the events for a particular person, without executing an explicit query - by calling Person#getEvents. Multi-valued associations are represented in Hibernate by one of the Java Collection Framework contracts; here we choose a java.util.Set because the collection will not contain duplicate elements and the ordering is not relevant to our examples:

public class Person {

    private Set events = new HashSet();

    public Set getEvents() {
        return events;
    }

    public void setEvents(Set events) {
        this.events = events;
    }
}

Before mapping this association, let's consider the other side. We could just keep this unidirectional or create another collection on the Event, if we wanted to be able to navigate it from both directions. This is not necessary, from a functional perspective. You can always execute an explicit query to retrieve the participants for a particular event. This is a design choice left to you, but what is clear from this discussion is the multiplicity of the association: "many" valued on both sides is called a many-to-many association. Hence, we use Hibernate's many-to-many mapping:

<class name="Person" table="PERSON">
    <id name="id" column="PERSON_ID">
        <generator class="native"/>
    </id>
    <property name="age"/>
    <property name="firstname"/>
    <property name="lastname"/>

    <set name="events" table="PERSON_EVENT">
        <key column="PERSON_ID"/>
        <many-to-many column="EVENT_ID" class="Event"/>
    </set>

</class>

Hibernate supports a broad range of collection mappings, a set being most common. For a many-to-many association, or n:m entity relationship, an association table is required. Each row in this table represents a link between a person and an event. The table name is decalred using the table attribute of the set element. The identifier column name in the association, for the person side, is defined with the key element, the column name for the event's side with the column attribute of the many-to-many. You also have to tell Hibernate the class of the objects in your collection (the class on the other side of the collection of references).

因而这个映射的数据库schema是:

    _____________        __________________
   |             |      |                  |       _____________
   |   EVENTS    |      |   PERSON_EVENT   |      |             |
   |_____________|      |__________________|      |    PERSON   |
   |             |      |                  |      |_____________|
   | *EVENT_ID   | <--> | *EVENT_ID        |      |             |
   |  EVENT_DATE |      | *PERSON_ID       | <--> | *PERSON_ID  |
   |  TITLE      |      |__________________|      |  AGE        |
   |_____________|                                |  FIRSTNAME  |
                                                  |  LASTNAME   |
                                                  |_____________|
 

Now we will bring some people and events together in a new method in EventManager:

    private void addPersonToEvent(Long personId, Long eventId) {
        Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession();
        session.beginTransaction();

        Person aPerson = (Person) session.load(Person.class, personId);
        Event anEvent = (Event) session.load(Event.class, eventId);
        aPerson.getEvents().add(anEvent);

        session.getTransaction().commit();
    }

After loading a Person and an Event, simply modify the collection using the normal collection methods. There is no explicit call to update() or save(); Hibernate automatically detects that the collection has been modified and needs to be updated. This is called automatic dirty checking. You can also try it by modifying the name or the date property of any of your objects. As long as they are in persistent state, that is, bound to a particular Hibernate org.hibernate.Session, Hibernate monitors any changes and executes SQL in a write-behind fashion. The process of synchronizing the memory state with the database, usually only at the end of a unit of work, is called flushing. In our code, the unit of work ends with a commit, or rollback, of the database transaction.

You can load person and event in different units of work. Or you can modify an object outside of a org.hibernate.Session, when it is not in persistent state (if it was persistent before, this state is called detached). You can even modify a collection when it is detached:

    private void addPersonToEvent(Long personId, Long eventId) {
        Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession();
        session.beginTransaction();

        Person aPerson = (Person) session
                .createQuery("select p from Person p left join fetch p.events where p.id = :pid")
                .setParameter("pid", personId)
                .uniqueResult(); // Eager fetch the collection so we can use it detached
        Event anEvent = (Event) session.load(Event.class, eventId);

        session.getTransaction().commit();

        // End of first unit of work

        aPerson.getEvents().add(anEvent); // aPerson (and its collection) is detached

        // Begin second unit of work

        Session session2 = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession();
        session2.beginTransaction();
        session2.update(aPerson); // Reattachment of aPerson

        session2.getTransaction().commit();
    }

The call to update makes a detached object persistent again by binding it to a new unit of work, so any modifications you made to it while detached can be saved to the database. This includes any modifications (additions/deletions) you made to a collection of that entity object.

This is not much use in our example, but it is an important concept you can incorporate into your own application. Complete this exercise by adding a new action to the main method of the EventManager and call it from the command line. If you need the identifiers of a person and an event - the save() method returns it (you might have to modify some of the previous methods to return that identifier):

        else if (args[0].equals("addpersontoevent")) {
            Long eventId = mgr.createAndStoreEvent("My Event", new Date());
            Long personId = mgr.createAndStorePerson("Foo", "Bar");
            mgr.addPersonToEvent(personId, eventId);
            System.out.println("Added person " + personId + " to event " + eventId);
        }

This is an example of an association between two equally important classes : two entities. As mentioned earlier, there are other classes and types in a typical model, usually "less important". Some you have already seen, like an int or a java.lang.String. We call these classes value types, and their instances depend on a particular entity. Instances of these types do not have their own identity, nor are they shared between entities. Two persons do not reference the same firstname object, even if they have the same first name. Value types cannot only be found in the JDK , but you can also write dependent classes yourself such as an Address or MonetaryAmount class. In fact, in a Hibernate application all JDK classes are considered value types.

You can also design a collection of value types. This is conceptually different from a collection of references to other entities, but looks almost the same in Java.

Let's add a collection of email addresses to the Person entity. This will be represented as a java.util.Set of java.lang.String instances:

    private Set emailAddresses = new HashSet();

    public Set getEmailAddresses() {
        return emailAddresses;
    }

    public void setEmailAddresses(Set emailAddresses) {
        this.emailAddresses = emailAddresses;
    }

The mapping of this Set is as follows:

        <set name="emailAddresses" table="PERSON_EMAIL_ADDR">
            <key column="PERSON_ID"/>
            <element type="string" column="EMAIL_ADDR"/>
        </set>

The difference compared with the earlier mapping is the use of the element part which tells Hibernate that the collection does not contain references to another entity, but is rather a collection whose elements are values types, here specifically of type string. The lowercase name tells you it is a Hibernate mapping type/converter. Again the table attribute of the set element determines the table name for the collection. The key element defines the foreign-key column name in the collection table. The column attribute in the element element defines the column name where the email address values will actually be stored.

Here is the updated schema:

  _____________        __________________
 |             |      |                  |       _____________
 |   EVENTS    |      |   PERSON_EVENT   |      |             |       ___________________
 |_____________|      |__________________|      |    PERSON   |      |                   |
 |             |      |                  |      |_____________|      | PERSON_EMAIL_ADDR |
 | *EVENT_ID   | <--> | *EVENT_ID        |      |             |      |___________________|
 |  EVENT_DATE |      | *PERSON_ID       | <--> | *PERSON_ID  | <--> |  *PERSON_ID       |
 |  TITLE      |      |__________________|      |  AGE        |      |  *EMAIL_ADDR      |
 |_____________|                                |  FIRSTNAME  |      |___________________|
                                                |  LASTNAME   |
                                                |_____________|
 

You can see that the primary key of the collection table is in fact a composite key that uses both columns. This also implies that there cannot be duplicate email addresses per person, which is exactly the semantics we need for a set in Java.

You can now try to add elements to this collection, just like we did before by linking persons and events. It is the same code in Java:

    private void addEmailToPerson(Long personId, String emailAddress) {
        Session session = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession();
        session.beginTransaction();

        Person aPerson = (Person) session.load(Person.class, personId);
        // adding to the emailAddress collection might trigger a lazy load of the collection
        aPerson.getEmailAddresses().add(emailAddress);

        session.getTransaction().commit();
    }

This time we did not use a fetch query to initialize the collection. Monitor the SQL log and try to optimize this with an eager fetch.

First, keep in mind that Hibernate does not affect normal Java semantics. How did we create a link between a Person and an Event in the unidirectional example? You add an instance of Event to the collection of event references, of an instance of Person. If you want to make this link bi-directional, you have to do the same on the other side by adding a Person reference to the collection in an Event. This process of "setting the link on both sides" is absolutely necessary with bi-directional links.

Many developers program defensively and create link management methods to correctly set both sides (for example, in Person):

    protected Set getEvents() {
        return events;
    }

    protected void setEvents(Set events) {
        this.events = events;
    }

    public void addToEvent(Event event) {
        this.getEvents().add(event);
        event.getParticipants().add(this);
    }

    public void removeFromEvent(Event event) {
        this.getEvents().remove(event);
        event.getParticipants().remove(this);
    }

The get and set methods for the collection are now protected. This allows classes in the same package and subclasses to still access the methods, but prevents everybody else from altering the collections directly. Repeat the steps for the collection on the other side.

What about the inverse mapping attribute? For you, and for Java, a bi-directional link is simply a matter of setting the references on both sides correctly. Hibernate, however, does not have enough information to correctly arrange SQL INSERT and UPDATE statements (to avoid constraint violations). Making one side of the association inverse tells Hibernate to consider it a mirror of the other side. That is all that is necessary for Hibernate to resolve any issues that arise when transforming a directional navigation model to a SQL database schema. The rules are straightforward: all bi-directional associations need one side as inverse. In a one-to-many association it has to be the many-side, and in many-to-many association you can select either side.

A Hibernate web application uses Session and Transaction almost like a standalone application. However, some common patterns are useful. You can now write an EventManagerServlet. This servlet can list all events stored in the database, and it provides an HTML form to enter new events.

First we need create our basic processing servlet. Since our servlet only handles HTTP GET requests, we will only implement the doGet() method:

package org.hibernate.tutorial.web;

// Imports

public class EventManagerServlet extends HttpServlet {

    protected void doGet(
            HttpServletRequest request,
            HttpServletResponse response) throws ServletException, IOException {

        SimpleDateFormat dateFormatter = new SimpleDateFormat( "dd.MM.yyyy" );

        try {
            // Begin unit of work
            HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession().beginTransaction();

            // Process request and render page...

            // End unit of work
            HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession().getTransaction().commit();
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory().getCurrentSession().getTransaction().rollback();
            if ( ServletException.class.isInstance( ex ) ) {
                throw ( ServletException ) ex;
            }
            else {
                throw new ServletException( ex );
            }
        }
    }

}

Save this servlet as src/main/java/org/hibernate/tutorial/web/EventManagerServlet.java

The pattern applied here is called session-per-request. When a request hits the servlet, a new Hibernate Session is opened through the first call to getCurrentSession() on the SessionFactory. A database transaction is then started. All data access occurs inside a transaction irrespective of whether the data is read or written. Do not use the auto-commit mode in applications.

我们称这里应用的模式为每次请求一个session(session-per-request)。当有请求到达这个servlet的时候,通过对SessionFactory的第一次调用,打开一个新的Hibernate Session。然后启动一个数据库事务-所有的数据访问都是在事务中进行,不管是读还是写(我们在应用程序中不使用auto-commit模式)。

Next, the possible actions of the request are processed and the response HTML is rendered. We will get to that part soon.

Finally, the unit of work ends when processing and rendering are complete. If any problems occurred during processing or rendering, an exception will be thrown and the database transaction rolled back. This completes the session-per-request pattern. Instead of the transaction demarcation code in every servlet, you could also write a servlet filter. See the Hibernate website and Wiki for more information about this pattern called Open Session in View. You will need it as soon as you consider rendering your view in JSP, not in a servlet.

Now you can implement the processing of the request and the rendering of the page.

        // Write HTML header
        PrintWriter out = response.getWriter();
        out.println("<html><head><title>Event Manager</title></head><body>");

        // Handle actions
        if ( "store".equals(request.getParameter("action")) ) {

            String eventTitle = request.getParameter("eventTitle");
            String eventDate = request.getParameter("eventDate");

            if ( "".equals(eventTitle) || "".equals(eventDate) ) {
                out.println("<b><i>Please enter event title and date.</i></b>");
            }
            else {
                createAndStoreEvent(eventTitle, dateFormatter.parse(eventDate));
                out.println("<b><i>Added event.</i></b>");
            }
        }

        // Print page
       printEventForm(out);
       listEvents(out, dateFormatter);

       // Write HTML footer
       out.println("</body></html>");
       out.flush();
       out.close();

This coding style, with a mix of Java and HTML, would not scale in a more complex application-keep in mind that we are only illustrating basic Hibernate concepts in this tutorial. The code prints an HTML header and a footer. Inside this page, an HTML form for event entry and a list of all events in the database are printed. The first method is trivial and only outputs HTML:

    private void printEventForm(PrintWriter out) {
        out.println("<h2>Add new event:</h2>");
        out.println("<form>");
        out.println("Title: <input name='eventTitle' length='50'/><br/>");
        out.println("Date (e.g. 24.12.2009): <input name='eventDate' length='10'/><br/>");
        out.println("<input type='submit' name='action' value='store'/>");
        out.println("</form>");
    }

listEvents()方法使用绑定到当前线程的Hibernate Session来执行查询:

    private void listEvents(PrintWriter out, SimpleDateFormat dateFormatter) {

        List result = HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory()
                .getCurrentSession().createCriteria(Event.class).list();
        if (result.size() > 0) {
            out.println("<h2>Events in database:</h2>");
            out.println("<table border='1'>");
            out.println("<tr>");
            out.println("<th>Event title</th>");
            out.println("<th>Event date</th>");
            out.println("</tr>");
            Iterator it = result.iterator();
            while (it.hasNext()) {
                Event event = (Event) it.next();
                out.println("<tr>");
                out.println("<td>" + event.getTitle() + "</td>");
                out.println("<td>" + dateFormatter.format(event.getDate()) + "</td>");
                out.println("</tr>");
            }
            out.println("</table>");
        }
    }

最后,store动作会被导向到createAndStoreEvent()方法,它也使用当前线程的Session:

    protected void createAndStoreEvent(String title, Date theDate) {
        Event theEvent = new Event();
        theEvent.setTitle(title);
        theEvent.setDate(theDate);

        HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory()
                .getCurrentSession().save(theEvent);
    }

The servlet is now complete. A request to the servlet will be processed in a single Session and Transaction. As earlier in the standalone application, Hibernate can automatically bind these objects to the current thread of execution. This gives you the freedom to layer your code and access the SessionFactory in any way you like. Usually you would use a more sophisticated design and move the data access code into data access objects (the DAO pattern). See the Hibernate Wiki for more examples.

The diagram below provides a high-level view of the Hibernate architecture:

We do not have the scope in this document to provide a more detailed view of all the runtime architectures available; Hibernate is flexible and supports several different approaches. We will, however, show the two extremes: "minimal" architecture and "comprehensive" architecture.

This next diagram illustrates how Hibernate utilizes database and configuration data to provide persistence services, and persistent objects, to the application.

The "minimal" architecture has the application provide its own JDBC connections and manage its own transactions. This approach uses a minimal subset of Hibernate's APIs:

The "comprehensive" architecture abstracts the application away from the underlying JDBC/JTA APIs and allows Hibernate to manage the details.

Here are some definitions of the objects depicted in the diagrams:

SessionFactory (org.hibernate.SessionFactory)

A threadsafe, immutable cache of compiled mappings for a single database. A factory for Session and a client of ConnectionProvider, SessionFactory can hold an optional (second-level) cache of data that is reusable between transactions at a process, or cluster, level.

Session (org.hibernate.Session)

A single-threaded, short-lived object representing a conversation between the application and the persistent store. It wraps a JDBC connection and is a factory for Transaction. Session holds a mandatory first-level cache of persistent objects that are used when navigating the object graph or looking up objects by identifier.

持久的对象及其集合

Short-lived, single threaded objects containing persistent state and business function. These can be ordinary JavaBeans/POJOs. They are associated with exactly one Session. Once the Session is closed, they will be detached and free to use in any application layer (for example, directly as data transfer objects to and from presentation).

瞬态(transient)和脱管(detached)的对象及其集合

Instances of persistent classes that are not currently associated with a Session. They may have been instantiated by the application and not yet persisted, or they may have been instantiated by a closed Session.

事务Transaction (org.hibernate.Transaction)

(Optional) A single-threaded, short-lived object used by the application to specify atomic units of work. It abstracts the application from the underlying JDBC, JTA or CORBA transaction. A Session might span several Transactions in some cases. However, transaction demarcation, either using the underlying API or Transaction, is never optional.

ConnectionProvider (org.hibernate.connection.ConnectionProvider)

(Optional) A factory for, and pool of, JDBC connections. It abstracts the application from underlying Datasource or DriverManager. It is not exposed to application, but it can be extended and/or implemented by the developer.

TransactionFactory (org.hibernate.TransactionFactory)

(Optional) A factory for Transaction instances. It is not exposed to the application, but it can be extended and/or implemented by the developer.

扩展接口

Hibernate offers a range of optional extension interfaces you can implement to customize the behavior of your persistence layer. See the API documentation for details.

Given a "minimal" architecture, the application bypasses the Transaction/TransactionFactory and/or ConnectionProvider APIs to communicate with JTA or JDBC directly.

JMX is the J2EE standard for the management of Java components. Hibernate can be managed via a JMX standard service. AN MBean implementation is provided in the distribution: org.hibernate.jmx.HibernateService.

For an example of how to deploy Hibernate as a JMX service on the JBoss Application Server, please see the JBoss User Guide. JBoss AS also provides these benefits if you deploy using JMX:

这些选项更多的描述,请参考JBoss 应用程序用户指南。

Another feature available as a JMX service is runtime Hibernate statistics. See 第 3.4.6 节 “Hibernate的统计(statistics)机制” for more information.

Most applications using Hibernate need some form of "contextual" session, where a given session is in effect throughout the scope of a given context. However, across applications the definition of what constitutes a context is typically different; different contexts define different scopes to the notion of current. Applications using Hibernate prior to version 3.0 tended to utilize either home-grown ThreadLocal-based contextual sessions, helper classes such as HibernateUtil, or utilized third-party frameworks, such as Spring or Pico, which provided proxy/interception-based contextual sessions.

Starting with version 3.0.1, Hibernate added the SessionFactory.getCurrentSession() method. Initially, this assumed usage of JTA transactions, where the JTA transaction defined both the scope and context of a current session. Given the maturity of the numerous stand-alone JTA TransactionManager implementations, most, if not all, applications should be using JTA transaction management, whether or not they are deployed into a J2EE container. Based on that, the JTA-based contextual sessions are all you need to use.

However, as of version 3.1, the processing behind SessionFactory.getCurrentSession() is now pluggable. To that end, a new extension interface, org.hibernate.context.CurrentSessionContext, and a new configuration parameter, hibernate.current_session_context_class, have been added to allow pluggability of the scope and context of defining current sessions.

See the Javadocs for the org.hibernate.context.CurrentSessionContext interface for a detailed discussion of its contract. It defines a single method, currentSession(), by which the implementation is responsible for tracking the current contextual session. Out-of-the-box, Hibernate comes with three implementations of this interface:

The first two implementations provide a "one session - one database transaction" programming model. This is also also known and used as session-per-request. The beginning and end of a Hibernate session is defined by the duration of a database transaction. If you use programmatic transaction demarcation in plain JSE without JTA, you are advised to use the Hibernate Transaction API to hide the underlying transaction system from your code. If you use JTA, you can utilize the JTA interfaces to demarcate transactions. If you execute in an EJB container that supports CMT, transaction boundaries are defined declaratively and you do not need any transaction or session demarcation operations in your code. Refer to 第 11 章 Transactions and Concurrency for more information and code examples.

The hibernate.current_session_context_class configuration parameter defines which org.hibernate.context.CurrentSessionContext implementation should be used. For backwards compatibility, if this configuration parameter is not set but a org.hibernate.transaction.TransactionManagerLookup is configured, Hibernate will use the org.hibernate.context.JTASessionContext. Typically, the value of this parameter would just name the implementation class to use. For the three out-of-the-box implementations, however, there are three corresponding short names: "jta", "thread", and "managed".

Hibernate is designed to operate in many different environments and, as such, there is a broad range of configuration parameters. Fortunately, most have sensible default values and Hibernate is distributed with an example hibernate.properties file in etc/ that displays the various options. Simply put the example file in your classpath and customize it to suit your needs.

An instance of org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration represents an entire set of mappings of an application's Java types to an SQL database. The org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration is used to build an immutable org.hibernate.SessionFactory. The mappings are compiled from various XML mapping files.

You can obtain a org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration instance by instantiating it directly and specifying XML mapping documents. If the mapping files are in the classpath, use addResource(). For example:

Configuration cfg = new Configuration()
    .addResource("Item.hbm.xml")
    .addResource("Bid.hbm.xml");

An alternative way is to specify the mapped class and allow Hibernate to find the mapping document for you:

Configuration cfg = new Configuration()
    .addClass(org.hibernate.auction.Item.class)
    .addClass(org.hibernate.auction.Bid.class);

Hibernate will then search for mapping files named /org/hibernate/auction/Item.hbm.xml and /org/hibernate/auction/Bid.hbm.xml in the classpath. This approach eliminates any hardcoded filenames.

A org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration also allows you to specify configuration properties. For example:

Configuration cfg = new Configuration()
    .addClass(org.hibernate.auction.Item.class)
    .addClass(org.hibernate.auction.Bid.class)
    .setProperty("hibernate.dialect", "org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLInnoDBDialect")
    .setProperty("hibernate.connection.datasource", "java:comp/env/jdbc/test")
    .setProperty("hibernate.order_updates", "true");

This is not the only way to pass configuration properties to Hibernate. Some alternative options include:

If you want to get started quicklyhibernate.properties is the easiest approach.

The org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration is intended as a startup-time object that will be discarded once a SessionFactory is created.

It is advisable to have the org.hibernate.SessionFactory create and pool JDBC connections for you. If you take this approach, opening a org.hibernate.Session is as simple as:

Session session = sessions.openSession(); // open a new Session

Once you start a task that requires access to the database, a JDBC connection will be obtained from the pool.

Before you can do this, you first need to pass some JDBC connection properties to Hibernate. All Hibernate property names and semantics are defined on the class org.hibernate.cfg.Environment. The most important settings for JDBC connection configuration are outlined below.

Hibernate will obtain and pool connections using java.sql.DriverManager if you set the following properties:


Hibernate's own connection pooling algorithm is, however, quite rudimentary. It is intended to help you get started and is not intended for use in a production system, or even for performance testing. You should use a third party pool for best performance and stability. Just replace the hibernate.connection.pool_size property with connection pool specific settings. This will turn off Hibernate's internal pool. For example, you might like to use c3p0.

C3P0 is an open source JDBC connection pool distributed along with Hibernate in the lib directory. Hibernate will use its org.hibernate.connection.C3P0ConnectionProvider for connection pooling if you set hibernate.c3p0.* properties. If you would like to use Proxool, refer to the packaged hibernate.properties and the Hibernate web site for more information.

The following is an example hibernate.properties file for c3p0:

hibernate.connection.driver_class = org.postgresql.Driver
hibernate.connection.url = jdbc:postgresql://localhost/mydatabase
hibernate.connection.username = myuser
hibernate.connection.password = secret
hibernate.c3p0.min_size=5
hibernate.c3p0.max_size=20
hibernate.c3p0.timeout=1800
hibernate.c3p0.max_statements=50
hibernate.dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.PostgreSQLDialect

For use inside an application server, you should almost always configure Hibernate to obtain connections from an application server javax.sql.Datasource registered in JNDI. You will need to set at least one of the following properties:


Here is an example hibernate.properties file for an application server provided JNDI datasource:

hibernate.connection.datasource = java:/comp/env/jdbc/test
hibernate.transaction.factory_class = \
    org.hibernate.transaction.JTATransactionFactory
hibernate.transaction.manager_lookup_class = \
    org.hibernate.transaction.JBossTransactionManagerLookup
hibernate.dialect = org.hibernate.dialect.PostgreSQLDialect

从JNDI数据源获得的JDBC连接将自动参与到应用程序服务器中容器管理的事务(container-managed transactions)中去.

Arbitrary connection properties can be given by prepending "hibernate.connection" to the connection property name. For example, you can specify a charSet connection property using hibernate.connection.charSet.

You can define your own plugin strategy for obtaining JDBC connections by implementing the interface org.hibernate.connection.ConnectionProvider, and specifying your custom implementation via the hibernate.connection.provider_class property.

There are a number of other properties that control the behavior of Hibernate at runtime. All are optional and have reasonable default values.

表 3.3. Hibernate配置属性

属性名用途
hibernate.dialect The classname of a Hibernate org.hibernate.dialect.Dialect which allows Hibernate to generate SQL optimized for a particular relational database.

e.g. full.classname.of.Dialect

In most cases Hibernate will actually be able to choose the correct org.hibernate.dialect.Dialect implementation based on the JDBC metadata returned by the JDBC driver.

hibernate.show_sql Write all SQL statements to console. This is an alternative to setting the log category org.hibernate.SQL to debug.

e.g. true | false

hibernate.format_sql Pretty print the SQL in the log and console.

e.g. true | false

hibernate.default_schema Qualify unqualified table names with the given schema/tablespace in generated SQL.

e.g. SCHEMA_NAME

hibernate.default_catalog Qualifies unqualified table names with the given catalog in generated SQL.

e.g. CATALOG_NAME

hibernate.session_factory_name The org.hibernate.SessionFactory will be automatically bound to this name in JNDI after it has been created.

e.g. jndi/composite/name

hibernate.max_fetch_depth Sets a maximum "depth" for the outer join fetch tree for single-ended associations (one-to-one, many-to-one). A 0 disables default outer join fetching.

e.g. recommended values between 0 and 3

hibernate.default_batch_fetch_size Sets a default size for Hibernate batch fetching of associations.

e.g. recommended values 4, 8, 16

hibernate.default_entity_mode Sets a default mode for entity representation for all sessions opened from this SessionFactory

取值dynamic-map, dom4j, pojo

hibernate.order_updates Forces Hibernate to order SQL updates by the primary key value of the items being updated. This will result in fewer transaction deadlocks in highly concurrent systems.

e.g. true | false

hibernate.generate_statistics If enabled, Hibernate will collect statistics useful for performance tuning.

e.g. true | false

hibernate.use_identifer_rollback If enabled, generated identifier properties will be reset to default values when objects are deleted.

e.g. true | false

hibernate.use_sql_comments If turned on, Hibernate will generate comments inside the SQL, for easier debugging, defaults to false.

e.g. true | false


表 3.4. Hibernate JDBC和连接(connection)属性

属性名用途
hibernate.jdbc.fetch_size A non-zero value determines the JDBC fetch size (calls Statement.setFetchSize()).
hibernate.jdbc.batch_size A non-zero value enables use of JDBC2 batch updates by Hibernate.

e.g. recommended values between 5 and 30

hibernate.jdbc.batch_versioned_data Set this property to true if your JDBC driver returns correct row counts from executeBatch(). Iit is usually safe to turn this option on. Hibernate will then use batched DML for automatically versioned data. Defaults to false.

e.g. true | false

hibernate.jdbc.factory_class Select a custom org.hibernate.jdbc.Batcher. Most applications will not need this configuration property.

e.g. classname.of.BatcherFactory

hibernate.jdbc.use_scrollable_resultset Enables use of JDBC2 scrollable resultsets by Hibernate. This property is only necessary when using user-supplied JDBC connections. Hibernate uses connection metadata otherwise.

e.g. true | false

hibernate.jdbc.use_streams_for_binary Use streams when writing/reading binary or serializable types to/from JDBC. *system-level property*

e.g. true | false

hibernate.jdbc.use_get_generated_keys Enables use of JDBC3 PreparedStatement.getGeneratedKeys() to retrieve natively generated keys after insert. Requires JDBC3+ driver and JRE1.4+, set to false if your driver has problems with the Hibernate identifier generators. By default, it tries to determine the driver capabilities using connection metadata.

e.g. true|false

hibernate.connection.provider_class The classname of a custom org.hibernate.connection.ConnectionProvider which provides JDBC connections to Hibernate.

e.g. classname.of.ConnectionProvider

hibernate.connection.isolation Sets the JDBC transaction isolation level. Check java.sql.Connection for meaningful values, but note that most databases do not support all isolation levels and some define additional, non-standard isolations.

e.g. 1, 2, 4, 8

hibernate.connection.autocommit Enables autocommit for JDBC pooled connections (it is not recommended).

e.g. true | false

hibernate.connection.release_mode Specifies when Hibernate should release JDBC connections. By default, a JDBC connection is held until the session is explicitly closed or disconnected. For an application server JTA datasource, use after_statement to aggressively release connections after every JDBC call. For a non-JTA connection, it often makes sense to release the connection at the end of each transaction, by using after_transaction. auto will choose after_statement for the JTA and CMT transaction strategies and after_transaction for the JDBC transaction strategy.

e.g. auto (default) | on_close | after_transaction | after_statement

This setting only affects Sessions returned from SessionFactory.openSession. For Sessions obtained through SessionFactory.getCurrentSession, the CurrentSessionContext implementation configured for use controls the connection release mode for those Sessions. See 第 2.5 节 “Contextual sessions”

hibernate.connection.<propertyName> Pass the JDBC property <propertyName> to DriverManager.getConnection().
hibernate.jndi.<propertyName> Pass the property <propertyName> to the JNDI InitialContextFactory.




Hibernate utilizes Simple Logging Facade for Java (SLF4J) in order to log various system events. SLF4J can direct your logging output to several logging frameworks (NOP, Simple, log4j version 1.2, JDK 1.4 logging, JCL or logback) depending on your chosen binding. In order to setup logging you will need slf4j-api.jar in your classpath together with the jar file for your preferred binding - slf4j-log4j12.jar in the case of Log4J. See the SLF4J documentation for more detail. To use Log4j you will also need to place a log4j.properties file in your classpath. An example properties file is distributed with Hibernate in the src/ directory.

It is recommended that you familiarize yourself with Hibernate's log messages. A lot of work has been put into making the Hibernate log as detailed as possible, without making it unreadable. It is an essential troubleshooting device. The most interesting log categories are the following:


在使用Hibernate开发应用程序时, 你应当总是为org.hibernate.SQL 开启debug级别的日志记录,或者开启hibernate.show_sql属性。

另一个配置方法是在hibernate.cfg.xml文件中指定一套完整的配置. 这个文件可以当成hibernate.properties的替代。 若两个文件同时存在,它将覆盖前者的属性.

The XML configuration file is by default expected to be in the root of your CLASSPATH. Here is an example:

<?xml version='1.0' encoding='utf-8'?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-configuration PUBLIC
    "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Configuration DTD//EN"
    "http://hibernate.sourceforge.net/hibernate-configuration-3.0.dtd">

<hibernate-configuration>

    <!-- a SessionFactory instance listed as /jndi/name -->
    <session-factory
        name="java:hibernate/SessionFactory">

        <!-- properties -->
        <property name="connection.datasource">java:/comp/env/jdbc/MyDB</property>
        <property name="dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.MySQLDialect</property>
        <property name="show_sql">false</property>
        <property name="transaction.factory_class">
            org.hibernate.transaction.JTATransactionFactory
        </property>
        <property name="jta.UserTransaction">java:comp/UserTransaction</property>

        <!-- mapping files -->
        <mapping resource="org/hibernate/auction/Item.hbm.xml"/>
        <mapping resource="org/hibernate/auction/Bid.hbm.xml"/>

        <!-- cache settings -->
        <class-cache class="org.hibernate.auction.Item" usage="read-write"/>
        <class-cache class="org.hibernate.auction.Bid" usage="read-only"/>
        <collection-cache collection="org.hibernate.auction.Item.bids" usage="read-write"/>

    </session-factory>

</hibernate-configuration>

The advantage of this approach is the externalization of the mapping file names to configuration. The hibernate.cfg.xml is also more convenient once you have to tune the Hibernate cache. It is your choice to use either hibernate.properties or hibernate.cfg.xml. Both are equivalent, except for the above mentioned benefits of using the XML syntax.

With the XML configuration, starting Hibernate is then as simple as:

SessionFactory sf = new Configuration().configure().buildSessionFactory();

You can select a different XML configuration file using:

SessionFactory sf = new Configuration()
    .configure("catdb.cfg.xml")
    .buildSessionFactory();

针对J2EE体系,Hibernate有如下几个集成的方面:

如果应用程序服务器抛出"connection containment"异常, 根据你的环境,也许该将配置属性 hibernate.connection.release_mode设为after_statement.

The Hibernate Session API is independent of any transaction demarcation system in your architecture. If you let Hibernate use JDBC directly through a connection pool, you can begin and end your transactions by calling the JDBC API. If you run in a J2EE application server, you might want to use bean-managed transactions and call the JTA API and UserTransaction when needed.

为了让你的代码在两种(或其他)环境中可以移植,我们建议使用可选的Hibernate Transaction API, 它包装并隐藏了底层系统. 你必须通过设置Hibernate配置属性hibernate.transaction.factory_class来指定 一个Transaction实例的工厂类.

There are three standard, or built-in, choices:

You can also define your own transaction strategies (for a CORBA transaction service, for example).

Some features in Hibernate (i.e., the second level cache, Contextual Sessions with JTA, etc.) require access to the JTA TransactionManager in a managed environment. In an application server, since J2EE does not standardize a single mechanism, you have to specify how Hibernate should obtain a reference to the TransactionManager:


A JNDI-bound Hibernate SessionFactory can simplify the lookup function of the factory and create new Sessions. This is not, however, related to a JNDI bound Datasource; both simply use the same registry.

If you wish to have the SessionFactory bound to a JNDI namespace, specify a name (e.g. java:hibernate/SessionFactory) using the property hibernate.session_factory_name. If this property is omitted, the SessionFactory will not be bound to JNDI. This is especially useful in environments with a read-only JNDI default implementation (in Tomcat, for example).

在将SessionFactory绑定至JNDI时, Hibernate将使用hibernate.jndi.url, 和hibernate.jndi.class的值来实例化初始环境(initial context). 如果它们没有被指定, 将使用默认的InitialContext.

Hibernate will automatically place the SessionFactory in JNDI after you call cfg.buildSessionFactory(). This means you will have this call in some startup code, or utility class in your application, unless you use JMX deployment with the HibernateService (this is discussed later in greater detail).

If you use a JNDI SessionFactory, an EJB or any other class, you can obtain the SessionFactory using a JNDI lookup.

It is recommended that you bind the SessionFactory to JNDI in a managed environment and use a static singleton otherwise. To shield your application code from these details, we also recommend to hide the actual lookup code for a SessionFactory in a helper class, such as HibernateUtil.getSessionFactory(). Note that such a class is also a convenient way to startup Hibernatesee chapter 1.

The easiest way to handle Sessions and transactions is Hibernate's automatic "current" Session management. For a discussion of contextual sessions see 第 2.5 节 “Contextual sessions”. Using the "jta" session context, if there is no Hibernate Session associated with the current JTA transaction, one will be started and associated with that JTA transaction the first time you call sessionFactory.getCurrentSession(). The Sessions retrieved via getCurrentSession() in the"jta" context are set to automatically flush before the transaction completes, close after the transaction completes, and aggressively release JDBC connections after each statement. This allows the Sessions to be managed by the life cycle of the JTA transaction to which it is associated, keeping user code clean of such management concerns. Your code can either use JTA programmatically through UserTransaction, or (recommended for portable code) use the Hibernate Transaction API to set transaction boundaries. If you run in an EJB container, declarative transaction demarcation with CMT is preferred.

The line cfg.buildSessionFactory() still has to be executed somewhere to get a SessionFactory into JNDI. You can do this either in a static initializer block, like the one in HibernateUtil, or you can deploy Hibernate as a managed service.

Hibernate is distributed with org.hibernate.jmx.HibernateService for deployment on an application server with JMX capabilities, such as JBoss AS. The actual deployment and configuration is vendor-specific. Here is an example jboss-service.xml for JBoss 4.0.x:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<server>

<mbean code="org.hibernate.jmx.HibernateService"
    name="jboss.jca:service=HibernateFactory,name=HibernateFactory">

    <!-- Required services -->
    <depends>jboss.jca:service=RARDeployer</depends>
    <depends>jboss.jca:service=LocalTxCM,name=HsqlDS</depends>

    <!-- Bind the Hibernate service to JNDI -->
    <attribute name="JndiName">java:/hibernate/SessionFactory</attribute>

    <!-- Datasource settings -->
    <attribute name="Datasource">java:HsqlDS</attribute>
    <attribute name="Dialect">org.hibernate.dialect.HSQLDialect</attribute>

    <!-- Transaction integration -->
    <attribute name="TransactionStrategy">
        org.hibernate.transaction.JTATransactionFactory</attribute>
    <attribute name="TransactionManagerLookupStrategy">
        org.hibernate.transaction.JBossTransactionManagerLookup</attribute>
    <attribute name="FlushBeforeCompletionEnabled">true</attribute>
    <attribute name="AutoCloseSessionEnabled">true</attribute>

    <!-- Fetching options -->
    <attribute name="MaximumFetchDepth">5</attribute>

    <!-- Second-level caching -->
    <attribute name="SecondLevelCacheEnabled">true</attribute>
    <attribute name="CacheProviderClass">org.hibernate.cache.EhCacheProvider</attribute>
    <attribute name="QueryCacheEnabled">true</attribute>

    <!-- Logging -->
    <attribute name="ShowSqlEnabled">true</attribute>

    <!-- Mapping files -->
    <attribute name="MapResources">auction/Item.hbm.xml,auction/Category.hbm.xml</attribute>

</mbean>

</server>

This file is deployed in a directory called META-INF and packaged in a JAR file with the extension .sar (service archive). You also need to package Hibernate, its required third-party libraries, your compiled persistent classes, as well as your mapping files in the same archive. Your enterprise beans (usually session beans) can be kept in their own JAR file, but you can include this EJB JAR file in the main service archive to get a single (hot-)deployable unit. Consult the JBoss AS documentation for more information about JMX service and EJB deployment.

Persistent classes are classes in an application that implement the entities of the business problem (e.g. Customer and Order in an E-commerce application). Not all instances of a persistent class are considered to be in the persistent state. For example, an instance can instead be transient or detached.

Hibernate works best if these classes follow some simple rules, also known as the Plain Old Java Object (POJO) programming model. However, none of these rules are hard requirements. Indeed, Hibernate3 assumes very little about the nature of your persistent objects. You can express a domain model in other ways (using trees of Map instances, for example).

Most Java applications require a persistent class representing felines. For example:

package eg;
import java.util.Set;
import java.util.Date;

public class Cat {
    private Long id; // identifier

    private Date birthdate;
    private Color color;
    private char sex;
    private float weight;
    private int litterId;

    private Cat mother;
    private Set kittens = new HashSet();

    private void setId(Long id) {
        this.id=id;
    }
    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }

    void setBirthdate(Date date) {
        birthdate = date;
    }
    public Date getBirthdate() {
        return birthdate;
    }

    void setWeight(float weight) {
        this.weight = weight;
    }
    public float getWeight() {
        return weight;
    }

    public Color getColor() {
        return color;
    }
    void setColor(Color color) {
        this.color = color;
    }

    void setSex(char sex) {
        this.sex=sex;
    }
    public char getSex() {
        return sex;
    }

    void setLitterId(int id) {
        this.litterId = id;
    }
    public int getLitterId() {
        return litterId;
    }

    void setMother(Cat mother) {
        this.mother = mother;
    }
    public Cat getMother() {
        return mother;
    }
    void setKittens(Set kittens) {
        this.kittens = kittens;
    }
    public Set getKittens() {
        return kittens;
    }
    
    // addKitten not needed by Hibernate
    public void addKitten(Cat kitten) {
            kitten.setMother(this);
        kitten.setLitterId( kittens.size() ); 
        kittens.add(kitten);
    }
}

The four main rules of persistent classes are explored in more detail in the following sections.

You have to override the equals() and hashCode() methods if you:

Hibernate guarantees equivalence of persistent identity (database row) and Java identity only inside a particular session scope. When you mix instances retrieved in different sessions, you must implement equals() and hashCode() if you wish to have meaningful semantics for Sets.

The most obvious way is to implement equals()/hashCode() by comparing the identifier value of both objects. If the value is the same, both must be the same database row, because they are equal. If both are added to a Set, you will only have one element in the Set). Unfortunately, you cannot use that approach with generated identifiers. Hibernate will only assign identifier values to objects that are persistent; a newly created instance will not have any identifier value. Furthermore, if an instance is unsaved and currently in a Set, saving it will assign an identifier value to the object. If equals() and hashCode() are based on the identifier value, the hash code would change, breaking the contract of the Set. See the Hibernate website for a full discussion of this problem. This is not a Hibernate issue, but normal Java semantics of object identity and equality.

It is recommended that you implement equals() and hashCode() using Business key equality. Business key equality means that the equals() method compares only the properties that form the business key. It is a key that would identify our instance in the real world (a natural candidate key):

public class Cat {

    ...
    public boolean equals(Object other) {
        if (this == other) return true;
        if ( !(other instanceof Cat) ) return false;

        final Cat cat = (Cat) other;

        if ( !cat.getLitterId().equals( getLitterId() ) ) return false;
        if ( !cat.getMother().equals( getMother() ) ) return false;

        return true;
    }

    public int hashCode() {
        int result;
        result = getMother().hashCode();
        result = 29 * result + getLitterId();
        return result;
    }

}

A business key does not have to be as solid as a database primary key candidate (see 第 11.1.3 节 “关注对象标识(Considering object identity)”). Immutable or unique properties are usually good candidates for a business key.

Persistent entities do not necessarily have to be represented as POJO classes or as JavaBean objects at runtime. Hibernate also supports dynamic models (using Maps of Maps at runtime) and the representation of entities as DOM4J trees. With this approach, you do not write persistent classes, only mapping files.

By default, Hibernate works in normal POJO mode. You can set a default entity representation mode for a particular SessionFactory using the default_entity_mode configuration option (see 表 3.3 “Hibernate配置属性”).

The following examples demonstrate the representation using Maps. First, in the mapping file an entity-name has to be declared instead of, or in addition to, a class name:

<hibernate-mapping>

    <class entity-name="Customer">

        <id name="id"
            type="long"
            column="ID">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>

        <property name="name"
            column="NAME"
            type="string"/>

        <property name="address"
            column="ADDRESS"
            type="string"/>

        <many-to-one name="organization"
            column="ORGANIZATION_ID"
            class="Organization"/>

        <bag name="orders"
            inverse="true"
            lazy="false"
            cascade="all">
            <key column="CUSTOMER_ID"/>
            <one-to-many class="Order"/>
        </bag>

    </class>
    
</hibernate-mapping>

Even though associations are declared using target class names, the target type of associations can also be a dynamic entity instead of a POJO.

After setting the default entity mode to dynamic-map for the SessionFactory, you can, at runtime, work with Maps of Maps:

Session s = openSession();
Transaction tx = s.beginTransaction();
Session s = openSession();

// Create a customer
Map david = new HashMap();
david.put("name", "David");

// Create an organization
Map foobar = new HashMap();
foobar.put("name", "Foobar Inc.");

// Link both
david.put("organization", foobar);

// Save both
s.save("Customer", david);
s.save("Organization", foobar);

tx.commit();
s.close();

One of the main advantages of dynamic mapping is quick turnaround time for prototyping, without the need for entity class implementation. However, you lose compile-time type checking and will likely deal with many exceptions at runtime. As a result of the Hibernate mapping, the database schema can easily be normalized and sound, allowing to add a proper domain model implementation on top later on.

实体表示模式也能在每个Session的基础上设置:

Session dynamicSession = pojoSession.getSession(EntityMode.MAP);

// Create a customer
Map david = new HashMap();
david.put("name", "David");
dynamicSession.save("Customer", david);
...
dynamicSession.flush();
dynamicSession.close()
...
// Continue on pojoSession

Please note that the call to getSession() using an EntityMode is on the Session API, not the SessionFactory. That way, the new Session shares the underlying JDBC connection, transaction, and other context information. This means you do not have to call flush() and close() on the secondary Session, and also leave the transaction and connection handling to the primary unit of work.

关于XML表示能力的更多信息可以在第 18 章 XML映射中找到。

org.hibernate.tuple.Tuplizer, and its sub-interfaces, are responsible for managing a particular representation of a piece of data given that representation's org.hibernate.EntityMode. If a given piece of data is thought of as a data structure, then a tuplizer is the thing that knows how to create such a data structure and how to extract values from and inject values into such a data structure. For example, for the POJO entity mode, the corresponding tuplizer knows how create the POJO through its constructor. It also knows how to access the POJO properties using the defined property accessors.

There are two high-level types of Tuplizers, represented by the org.hibernate.tuple.entity.EntityTuplizer and org.hibernate.tuple.component.ComponentTuplizer interfaces. EntityTuplizers are responsible for managing the above mentioned contracts in regards to entities, while ComponentTuplizers do the same for components.

Users can also plug in their own tuplizers. Perhaps you require that a java.util.Map implementation other than java.util.HashMap be used while in the dynamic-map entity-mode. Or perhaps you need to define a different proxy generation strategy than the one used by default. Both would be achieved by defining a custom tuplizer implementation. Tuplizer definitions are attached to the entity or component mapping they are meant to manage. Going back to the example of our customer entity:

<hibernate-mapping>
    <class entity-name="Customer">
        <!--
            Override the dynamic-map entity-mode
            tuplizer for the customer entity
        -->
        <tuplizer entity-mode="dynamic-map"
                class="CustomMapTuplizerImpl"/>

        <id name="id" type="long" column="ID">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>

        <!-- other properties -->
        ...
    </class>
</hibernate-mapping>


public class CustomMapTuplizerImpl
        extends org.hibernate.tuple.entity.DynamicMapEntityTuplizer {
    // override the buildInstantiator() method to plug in our custom map...
    protected final Instantiator buildInstantiator(
            org.hibernate.mapping.PersistentClass mappingInfo) {
        return new CustomMapInstantiator( mappingInfo );
    }

    private static final class CustomMapInstantiator
            extends org.hibernate.tuple.DynamicMapInstantitor {
        // override the generateMap() method to return our custom map...
            protected final Map generateMap() {
                    return new CustomMap();
            }
    }
}

The org.hibernate.EntityNameResolver interface is a contract for resolving the entity name of a given entity instance. The interface defines a single method resolveEntityName which is passed the entity instance and is expected to return the appropriate entity name (null is allowed and would indicate that the resolver does not know how to resolve the entity name of the given entity instance). Generally speaking, an org.hibernate.EntityNameResolver is going to be most useful in the case of dynamic models. One example might be using proxied interfaces as your domain model. The hibernate test suite has an example of this exact style of usage under the org.hibernate.test.dynamicentity.tuplizer2. Here is some of the code from that package for illustration.

/**
 * A very trivial JDK Proxy InvocationHandler implementation where we proxy an interface as
 * the domain model and simply store persistent state in an internal Map.  This is an extremely
 * trivial example meant only for illustration.
 */
public final class DataProxyHandler implements InvocationHandler {
        private String entityName;
        private HashMap data = new HashMap();

        public DataProxyHandler(String entityName, Serializable id) {
                this.entityName = entityName;
                data.put( "Id", id );
        }

        public Object invoke(Object proxy, Method method, Object[] args) throws Throwable {
                String methodName = method.getName();
                if ( methodName.startsWith( "set" ) ) {
                        String propertyName = methodName.substring( 3 );
                        data.put( propertyName, args[0] );
                }
                else if ( methodName.startsWith( "get" ) ) {
                        String propertyName = methodName.substring( 3 );
                        return data.get( propertyName );
                }
                else if ( "toString".equals( methodName ) ) {
                        return entityName + "#" + data.get( "Id" );
                }
                else if ( "hashCode".equals( methodName ) ) {
                        return new Integer( this.hashCode() );
                }
                return null;
        }

        public String getEntityName() {
                return entityName;
        }

        public HashMap getData() {
                return data;
        }
}

/**
 *
 */
public class ProxyHelper {
    public static String extractEntityName(Object object) {
        // Our custom java.lang.reflect.Proxy instances actually bundle
        // their appropriate entity name, so we simply extract it from there
        // if this represents one of our proxies; otherwise, we return null
        if ( Proxy.isProxyClass( object.getClass() ) ) {
            InvocationHandler handler = Proxy.getInvocationHandler( object );
            if ( DataProxyHandler.class.isAssignableFrom( handler.getClass() ) ) {
                DataProxyHandler myHandler = ( DataProxyHandler ) handler;
                return myHandler.getEntityName();
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    // various other utility methods ....

}

/**
 * The EntityNameResolver implementation.
 * IMPL NOTE : An EntityNameResolver really defines a strategy for how entity names should be
 * resolved.  Since this particular impl can handle resolution for all of our entities we want to
 * take advantage of the fact that SessionFactoryImpl keeps these in a Set so that we only ever
 * have one instance registered.  Why?  Well, when it comes time to resolve an entity name,
 * Hibernate must iterate over all the registered resolvers.  So keeping that number down
 * helps that process be as speedy as possible.  Hence the equals and hashCode impls
 */
public class MyEntityNameResolver implements EntityNameResolver {
    public static final MyEntityNameResolver INSTANCE = new MyEntityNameResolver();

    public String resolveEntityName(Object entity) {
        return ProxyHelper.extractEntityName( entity );
    }

    public boolean equals(Object obj) {
        return getClass().equals( obj.getClass() );
    }

    public int hashCode() {
        return getClass().hashCode();
    }
}

public class MyEntityTuplizer extends PojoEntityTuplizer {
        public MyEntityTuplizer(EntityMetamodel entityMetamodel, PersistentClass mappedEntity) {
                super( entityMetamodel, mappedEntity );
        }

        public EntityNameResolver[] getEntityNameResolvers() {
                return new EntityNameResolver[] { MyEntityNameResolver.INSTANCE };
        }

    public String determineConcreteSubclassEntityName(Object entityInstance, SessionFactoryImplementor factory) {
        String entityName = ProxyHelper.extractEntityName( entityInstance );
        if ( entityName == null ) {
            entityName = super.determineConcreteSubclassEntityName( entityInstance, factory );
        }
        return entityName;
    }

    ...
}
        

In order to register an org.hibernate.EntityNameResolver users must either:

  1. Implement a custom Tuplizer, implementing the getEntityNameResolvers method.

  2. Register it with the org.hibernate.impl.SessionFactoryImpl (which is the implementation class for org.hibernate.SessionFactory) using the registerEntityNameResolver method.

Object/relational mappings are usually defined in an XML document. The mapping document is designed to be readable and hand-editable. The mapping language is Java-centric, meaning that mappings are constructed around persistent class declarations and not table declarations.

Please note that even though many Hibernate users choose to write the XML by hand, a number of tools exist to generate the mapping document. These include XDoclet, Middlegen and AndroMDA.

Here is an example mapping:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC
      "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD 3.0//EN"
          "http://hibernate.sourceforge.net/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd">

<hibernate-mapping package="eg">

        <class name="Cat"
            table="cats"
            discriminator-value="C">

                <id name="id">
                        <generator class="native"/>
                </id>

                <discriminator column="subclass"
                     type="character"/>

                <property name="weight"/>

                <property name="birthdate"
                    type="date"
                    not-null="true"
                    update="false"/>

                <property name="color"
                    type="eg.types.ColorUserType"
                    not-null="true"
                    update="false"/>

                <property name="sex"
                    not-null="true"
                    update="false"/>

                <property name="litterId"
                    column="litterId"
                    update="false"/>

                <many-to-one name="mother"
                    column="mother_id"
                    update="false"/>

                <set name="kittens"
                    inverse="true"
                    order-by="litter_id">
                        <key column="mother_id"/>
                        <one-to-many class="Cat"/>
                </set>

                <subclass name="DomesticCat"
                    discriminator-value="D">

                        <property name="name"
                            type="string"/>

                </subclass>

        </class>

        <class name="Dog">
                <!-- mapping for Dog could go here -->
        </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

We will now discuss the content of the mapping document. We will only describe, however, the document elements and attributes that are used by Hibernate at runtime. The mapping document also contains some extra optional attributes and elements that affect the database schemas exported by the schema export tool (for example, the not-null attribute).

All XML mappings should declare the doctype shown. The actual DTD can be found at the URL above, in the directory hibernate-x.x.x/src/org/hibernate , or in hibernate3.jar. Hibernate will always look for the DTD in its classpath first. If you experience lookups of the DTD using an Internet connection, check the DTD declaration against the contents of your classpath.

This element has several optional attributes. The schema and catalog attributes specify that tables referred to in this mapping belong to the named schema and/or catalog. If they are specified, tablenames will be qualified by the given schema and catalog names. If they are missing, tablenames will be unqualified. The default-cascade attribute specifies what cascade style should be assumed for properties and collections that do not specify a cascade attribute. By default, the auto-import attribute allows you to use unqualified class names in the query language.

<hibernate-mapping
         schema="schemaName"                          (1)
         catalog="catalogName"                        (2)
         default-cascade="cascade_style"              (3)
         default-access="field|property|ClassName"    (4)
         default-lazy="true|false"                    (5)
         auto-import="true|false"                     (6)
         package="package.name"                       (7)
 />
1

schema (optional): the name of a database schema.

2

catalog (optional): the name of a database catalog.

3

default-cascade (optional - defaults to none): a default cascade style.

4

default-access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate should use for accessing all properties. It can be a custom implementation of PropertyAccessor.

5

default-lazy (optional - defaults to true): the default value for unspecified lazy attributes of class and collection mappings.

6

auto-import (optional - defaults to true): specifies whether we can use unqualified class names of classes in this mapping in the query language.

7

package (optional): specifies a package prefix to use for unqualified class names in the mapping document.

If you have two persistent classes with the same unqualified name, you should set auto-import="false". An exception will result if you attempt to assign two classes to the same "imported" name.

The hibernate-mapping element allows you to nest several persistent <class> mappings, as shown above. It is, however, good practice (and expected by some tools) to map only a single persistent class, or a single class hierarchy, in one mapping file and name it after the persistent superclass. For example, Cat.hbm.xml, Dog.hbm.xml, or if using inheritance, Animal.hbm.xml.

You can declare a persistent class using the class element. For example:

<class
        name="ClassName"                              (1)
        table="tableName"                             (2)
        discriminator-value="discriminator_value"     (3)
        mutable="true|false"                          (4)
        schema="owner"                                (5)
        catalog="catalog"                             (6)
        proxy="ProxyInterface"                        (7)
        dynamic-update="true|false"                   (8)
        dynamic-insert="true|false"                   (9)
        select-before-update="true|false"             (10)
        polymorphism="implicit|explicit"              (11)
        where="arbitrary sql where condition"         (12)
        persister="PersisterClass"                    (13)
        batch-size="N"                                (14)
        optimistic-lock="none|version|dirty|all"      (15)
        lazy="true|false"                             (16)
        entity-name="EntityName"                      (17)
        check="arbitrary sql check condition"         (18)
        rowid="rowid"                                 (19)
        subselect="SQL expression"                    (20)
        abstract="true|false"                         (21)
        node="element-name"
/>
1

name (optional): the fully qualified Java class name of the persistent class or interface. If this attribute is missing, it is assumed that the mapping is for a non-POJO entity.

2

table (optional - defaults to the unqualified class name): the name of its database table.

3

discriminator-value (optional - defaults to the class name): a value that distinguishes individual subclasses that is used for polymorphic behavior. Acceptable values include null and not null.

4

mutable (optional - defaults to true): specifies that instances of the class are (not) mutable.

5

schema (optional): overrides the schema name specified by the root <hibernate-mapping> element.

6

catalog (optional): overrides the catalog name specified by the root <hibernate-mapping> element.

7

proxy (optional): specifies an interface to use for lazy initializing proxies. You can specify the name of the class itself.

8

dynamic-update (optional - defaults to false): specifies that UPDATE SQL should be generated at runtime and can contain only those columns whose values have changed.

9

dynamic-insert (optional - defaults to false): specifies that INSERT SQL should be generated at runtime and contain only the columns whose values are not null.

10

select-before-update (optional - defaults to false): specifies that Hibernate should never perform an SQL UPDATE unless it is certain that an object is actually modified. Only when a transient object has been associated with a new session using update(), will Hibernate perform an extra SQL SELECT to determine if an UPDATE is actually required.

11

polymorphism (optional - defaults to implicit): determines whether implicit or explicit query polymorphism is used.

12

where (optional): specifies an arbitrary SQL WHERE condition to be used when retrieving objects of this class.

13

persister (optional): specifies a custom ClassPersister.

14

batch-size (optional - defaults to 1): specifies a "batch size" for fetching instances of this class by identifier.

15

optimistic-lock (optional - defaults to version): determines the optimistic locking strategy.

(16)

lazy (optional): lazy fetching can be disabled by setting lazy="false".

(17)

entity-name (optional - defaults to the class name): Hibernate3 allows a class to be mapped multiple times, potentially to different tables. It also allows entity mappings that are represented by Maps or XML at the Java level. In these cases, you should provide an explicit arbitrary name for the entity. See 第 4.4 节 “动态模型(Dynamic models)” and 第 18 章 XML映射 for more information.

(18)

check (optional): an SQL expression used to generate a multi-row check constraint for automatic schema generation.

(19)

rowid (optional): Hibernate can use ROWIDs on databases. On Oracle, for example, Hibernate can use the rowid extra column for fast updates once this option has been set to rowid. A ROWID is an implementation detail and represents the physical location of a stored tuple.

(20)

subselect (optional): maps an immutable and read-only entity to a database subselect. This is useful if you want to have a view instead of a base table. See below for more information.

(21)

abstract (optional): is used to mark abstract superclasses in <union-subclass> hierarchies.

It is acceptable for the named persistent class to be an interface. You can declare implementing classes of that interface using the <subclass> element. You can persist any static inner class. Specify the class name using the standard form i.e. e.g.Foo$Bar.

Immutable classes, mutable="false", cannot be updated or deleted by the application. This allows Hibernate to make some minor performance optimizations.

The optional proxy attribute enables lazy initialization of persistent instances of the class. Hibernate will initially return CGLIB proxies that implement the named interface. The persistent object will load when a method of the proxy is invoked. See "Initializing collections and proxies" below.

Implicit polymorphism means that instances of the class will be returned by a query that names any superclass or implemented interface or class, and that instances of any subclass of the class will be returned by a query that names the class itself. Explicit polymorphism means that class instances will be returned only by queries that explicitly name that class. Queries that name the class will return only instances of subclasses mapped inside this <class> declaration as a <subclass> or <joined-subclass>. For most purposes, the default polymorphism="implicit" is appropriate. Explicit polymorphism is useful when two different classes are mapped to the same table This allows a "lightweight" class that contains a subset of the table columns.

The persister attribute lets you customize the persistence strategy used for the class. You can, for example, specify your own subclass of org.hibernate.persister.EntityPersister, or you can even provide a completely new implementation of the interface org.hibernate.persister.ClassPersister that implements, for example, persistence via stored procedure calls, serialization to flat files or LDAP. See org.hibernate.test.CustomPersister for a simple example of "persistence" to a Hashtable.

The dynamic-update and dynamic-insert settings are not inherited by subclasses, so they can also be specified on the <subclass> or <joined-subclass> elements. Although these settings can increase performance in some cases, they can actually decrease performance in others.

Use of select-before-update will usually decrease performance. It is useful to prevent a database update trigger being called unnecessarily if you reattach a graph of detached instances to a Session.

如果你打开了dynamic-update,你可以选择几种乐观锁定的策略:

It is strongly recommended that you use version/timestamp columns for optimistic locking with Hibernate. This strategy optimizes performance and correctly handles modifications made to detached instances (i.e. when Session.merge() is used).

There is no difference between a view and a base table for a Hibernate mapping. This is transparent at the database level, although some DBMS do not support views properly, especially with updates. Sometimes you want to use a view, but you cannot create one in the database (i.e. with a legacy schema). In this case, you can map an immutable and read-only entity to a given SQL subselect expression:

<class name="Summary">
    <subselect>
        select item.name, max(bid.amount), count(*)
        from item
        join bid on bid.item_id = item.id
        group by item.name
    </subselect>
    <synchronize table="item"/>
    <synchronize table="bid"/>
    <id name="name"/>
    ...
</class>

Declare the tables to synchronize this entity with, ensuring that auto-flush happens correctly and that queries against the derived entity do not return stale data. The <subselect> is available both as an attribute and a nested mapping element.

被映射的类必须定义对应数据库表主键字段。大多数类有一个JavaBeans风格的属性, 为每一个实例包含唯一的标识。<id> 元素定义了该属性到数据库表主键字段的映射。

<id
        name="propertyName"                                          (1)
        type="typename"                                              (2)
        column="column_name"                                         (3)
        unsaved-value="null|any|none|undefined|id_value"             (4)
        access="field|property|ClassName">                           (5)
        node="element-name|@attribute-name|element/@attribute|."

        <generator class="generatorClass"/>
</id>
1

name (optional): the name of the identifier property.

2

type (可选): 一个Hibernate类型的名字。

3

column (optional - defaults to the property name): the name of the primary key column.

4

unsaved-value (optional - defaults to a "sensible" value): an identifier property value that indicates an instance is newly instantiated (unsaved), distinguishing it from detached instances that were saved or loaded in a previous session.

5

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate should use for accessing the property value.

如果 name属性不存在,会认为这个类没有标识属性。

unsaved-value 属性在Hibernate3中几乎不再需要。

There is an alternative <composite-id> declaration that allows access to legacy data with composite keys. Its use is strongly discouraged for anything else.

可选的<generator>子元素是一个Java类的名字, 用来为该持久化类的实例生成唯一的标识。如果这个生成器实例需要某些配置值或者初始化参数, 用<param>元素来传递。

<id name="id" type="long" column="cat_id">
        <generator class="org.hibernate.id.TableHiLoGenerator">
                <param name="table">uid_table</param>
                <param name="column">next_hi_value_column</param>
        </generator>
</id>

All generators implement the interface org.hibernate.id.IdentifierGenerator. This is a very simple interface. Some applications can choose to provide their own specialized implementations, however, Hibernate provides a range of built-in implementations. The shortcut names for the built-in generators are as follows:

increment

用于为long, short或者int类型生成 唯一标识。只有在没有其他进程往同一张表中插入数据时才能使用。 在集群下不要使用。

identity

对DB2,MySQL, MS SQL Server, Sybase和HypersonicSQL的内置标识字段提供支持。 返回的标识符是long, short 或者int类型的。

sequence

在DB2,PostgreSQL, Oracle, SAP DB, McKoi中使用序列(sequence), 而在Interbase中使用生成器(generator)。返回的标识符是long, short或者 int类型的。

hilo

使用一个高/低位算法高效的生成long, short 或者 int类型的标识符。给定一个表和字段(默认分别是 hibernate_unique_keynext_hi)作为高位值的来源。 高/低位算法生成的标识符只在一个特定的数据库中是唯一的。

seqhilo

使用一个高/低位算法来高效的生成long, short 或者 int类型的标识符,给定一个数据库序列(sequence)的名字。

uuid

uses a 128-bit UUID algorithm to generate identifiers of type string that are unique within a network (the IP address is used). The UUID is encoded as a string of 32 hexadecimal digits in length.

guid

在MS SQL Server 和 MySQL 中使用数据库生成的GUID字符串。

native

selects identity, sequence or hilo depending upon the capabilities of the underlying database.

assigned

lets the application assign an identifier to the object before save() is called. This is the default strategy if no <generator> element is specified.

select

retrieves a primary key, assigned by a database trigger, by selecting the row by some unique key and retrieving the primary key value.

foreign

uses the identifier of another associated object. It is usually used in conjunction with a <one-to-one> primary key association.

sequence-identity

a specialized sequence generation strategy that utilizes a database sequence for the actual value generation, but combines this with JDBC3 getGeneratedKeys to return the generated identifier value as part of the insert statement execution. This strategy is only supported on Oracle 10g drivers targeted for JDK 1.4. Comments on these insert statements are disabled due to a bug in the Oracle drivers.

Starting with release 3.2.3, there are 2 new generators which represent a re-thinking of 2 different aspects of identifier generation. The first aspect is database portability; the second is optimization Optimization means that you do not have to query the database for every request for a new identifier value. These two new generators are intended to take the place of some of the named generators described above, starting in 3.3.x. However, they are included in the current releases and can be referenced by FQN.

The first of these new generators is org.hibernate.id.enhanced.SequenceStyleGenerator which is intended, firstly, as a replacement for the sequence generator and, secondly, as a better portability generator than native. This is because native generally chooses between identity and sequence which have largely different semantics that can cause subtle issues in applications eyeing portability. org.hibernate.id.enhanced.SequenceStyleGenerator, however, achieves portability in a different manner. It chooses between a table or a sequence in the database to store its incrementing values, depending on the capabilities of the dialect being used. The difference between this and native is that table-based and sequence-based storage have the same exact semantic. In fact, sequences are exactly what Hibernate tries to emulate with its table-based generators. This generator has a number of configuration parameters:

The second of these new generators is org.hibernate.id.enhanced.TableGenerator, which is intended, firstly, as a replacement for the table generator, even though it actually functions much more like org.hibernate.id.MultipleHiLoPerTableGenerator, and secondly, as a re-implementation of org.hibernate.id.MultipleHiLoPerTableGenerator that utilizes the notion of pluggable optimizers. Essentially this generator defines a table capable of holding a number of different increment values simultaneously by using multiple distinctly keyed rows. This generator has a number of configuration parameters:

  • table_name (optional - defaults to hibernate_sequences): the name of the table to be used.

  • value_column_name (optional - defaults to next_val): the name of the column on the table that is used to hold the value.

  • segment_column_name (optional - defaults to sequence_name): the name of the column on the table that is used to hold the "segment key". This is the value which identifies which increment value to use.

  • segment_value (optional - defaults to default): The "segment key" value for the segment from which we want to pull increment values for this generator.

  • segment_value_length (optional - defaults to 255): Used for schema generation; the column size to create this segment key column.

  • initial_value (optional - defaults to 1): The initial value to be retrieved from the table.

  • increment_size (optional - defaults to 1): The value by which subsequent calls to the table should differ.

  • optimizer (optional - defaults to ): See 第 5.1.6 节 “Identifier generator optimization”

For identifier generators that store values in the database, it is inefficient for them to hit the database on each and every call to generate a new identifier value. Instead, you can group a bunch of them in memory and only hit the database when you have exhausted your in-memory value group. This is the role of the pluggable optimizers. Currently only the two enhanced generators (第 5.1.5 节 “Enhanced identifier generators” support this operation.

  • none (generally this is the default if no optimizer was specified): this will not perform any optimizations and hit the database for each and every request.

  • hilo: applies a hi/lo algorithm around the database retrieved values. The values from the database for this optimizer are expected to be sequential. The values retrieved from the database structure for this optimizer indicates the "group number". The increment_size is multiplied by that value in memory to define a group "hi value".

  • pooled: as with the case of hilo, this optimizer attempts to minimize the number of hits to the database. Here, however, we simply store the starting value for the "next group" into the database structure rather than a sequential value in combination with an in-memory grouping algorithm. Here, increment_size refers to the values coming from the database.

<composite-id
        name="propertyName"
        class="ClassName"
        mapped="true|false"
        access="field|property|ClassName">
        node="element-name|."

        <key-property name="propertyName" type="typename" column="column_name"/>
        <key-many-to-one name="propertyName class="ClassName" column="column_name"/>
        ......
</composite-id>

A table with a composite key can be mapped with multiple properties of the class as identifier properties. The <composite-id> element accepts <key-property> property mappings and <key-many-to-one> mappings as child elements.

<composite-id>
        <key-property name="medicareNumber"/>
        <key-property name="dependent"/>
</composite-id>

The persistent class must override equals() and hashCode() to implement composite identifier equality. It must also implement Serializable.

Unfortunately, this approach means that a persistent object is its own identifier. There is no convenient "handle" other than the object itself. You must instantiate an instance of the persistent class itself and populate its identifier properties before you can load() the persistent state associated with a composite key. We call this approach an embedded composite identifier, and discourage it for serious applications.

第二种方法我们称为mapped(映射式)组合标识符 (mapped composite identifier),<composite-id>元素中列出的标识属性不但在持久化类出现,还形成一个独立的标识符类。

<composite-id class="MedicareId" mapped="true">
        <key-property name="medicareNumber"/>
        <key-property name="dependent"/>
</composite-id>

In this example, both the composite identifier class, MedicareId, and the entity class itself have properties named medicareNumber and dependent. The identifier class must override equals() and hashCode() and implement Serializable. The main disadvantage of this approach is code duplication.

下面列出的属性是用来指定一个映射式组合标识符的:

We will describe a third, even more convenient approach, where the composite identifier is implemented as a component class in 第 8.4 节 “组件作为联合标识符(Components as composite identifiers)”. The attributes described below apply only to this alternative approach:

  • name (optional - required for this approach): a property of component type that holds the composite identifier. Please see chapter 9 for more information.

  • access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the property value.

  • class (optional - defaults to the property type determined by reflection): the component class used as a composite identifier. Please see the next section for more information.

The third approach, an identifier component, is recommended for almost all applications.

The <discriminator> element is required for polymorphic persistence using the table-per-class-hierarchy mapping strategy. It declares a discriminator column of the table. The discriminator column contains marker values that tell the persistence layer what subclass to instantiate for a particular row. A restricted set of types can be used: string, character, integer, byte, short, boolean, yes_no, true_false.

<discriminator
        column="discriminator_column"                      (1)
        type="discriminator_type"                          (2)
        force="true|false"                                 (3)
        insert="true|false"                                (4)
        formula="arbitrary sql expression"                 (5)
/>
1

column (optional - defaults to class): the name of the discriminator column.

2

type (optional - defaults to string): a name that indicates the Hibernate type

3

force (optional - defaults to false): "forces" Hibernate to specify the allowed discriminator values, even when retrieving all instances of the root class.

4

insert (optional - defaults to true): set this to false if your discriminator column is also part of a mapped composite identifier. It tells Hibernate not to include the column in SQL INSERTs.

5

formula (optional): an arbitrary SQL expression that is executed when a type has to be evaluated. It allows content-based discrimination.

鉴别器字段的实际值是根据<class><subclass>元素中 的discriminator-value属性得来的。

The force attribute is only useful if the table contains rows with "extra" discriminator values that are not mapped to a persistent class. This will not usually be the case.

The formula attribute allows you to declare an arbitrary SQL expression that will be used to evaluate the type of a row. For example:

<discriminator
    formula="case when CLASS_TYPE in ('a', 'b', 'c') then 0 else 1 end"
    type="integer"/>

The <version> element is optional and indicates that the table contains versioned data. This is particularly useful if you plan to use long transactions. See below for more information:

<version
        column="version_column"                                      (1)
        name="propertyName"                                          (2)
        type="typename"                                              (3)
        access="field|property|ClassName"                            (4)
        unsaved-value="null|negative|undefined"                      (5)
        generated="never|always"                                     (6)
        insert="true|false"                                          (7)
        node="element-name|@attribute-name|element/@attribute|."
/>
1

column (optional - defaults to the property name): the name of the column holding the version number.

2

name: the name of a property of the persistent class.

3

type (optional - defaults to integer): the type of the version number.

4

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses to access the property value.

5

unsaved-value (optional - defaults to undefined): a version property value that indicates that an instance is newly instantiated (unsaved), distinguishing it from detached instances that were saved or loaded in a previous session. Undefined specifies that the identifier property value should be used.

6

generated (optional - defaults to never): specifies that this version property value is generated by the database. See the discussion of generated properties for more information.

7

insert (optional - defaults to true): specifies whether the version column should be included in SQL insert statements. It can be set to false if the database column is defined with a default value of 0.

Version numbers can be of Hibernate type long, integer, short, timestamp or calendar.

A version or timestamp property should never be null for a detached instance. Hibernate will detect any instance with a null version or timestamp as transient, irrespective of what other unsaved-value strategies are specified. Declaring a nullable version or timestamp property is an easy way to avoid problems with transitive reattachment in Hibernate. It is especially useful for people using assigned identifiers or composite keys.

The optional <timestamp> element indicates that the table contains timestamped data. This provides an alternative to versioning. Timestamps are a less safe implementation of optimistic locking. However, sometimes the application might use the timestamps in other ways.

<timestamp
        column="timestamp_column"                                    (1)
        name="propertyName"                                          (2)
        access="field|property|ClassName"                            (3)
        unsaved-value="null|undefined"                               (4)
        source="vm|db"                                               (5)
        generated="never|always"                                     (6)
        node="element-name|@attribute-name|element/@attribute|."
/>
1

column (optional - defaults to the property name): the name of a column holding the timestamp.

2

name: the name of a JavaBeans style property of Java type Date or Timestamp of the persistent class.

3

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the property value.

4

unsaved-value (optional - defaults to null): a version property value that indicates that an instance is newly instantiated (unsaved), distinguishing it from detached instances that were saved or loaded in a previous session. Undefined specifies that the identifier property value should be used.

5

source (optional - defaults to vm): Where should Hibernate retrieve the timestamp value from? From the database, or from the current JVM? Database-based timestamps incur an overhead because Hibernate must hit the database in order to determine the "next value". It is safer to use in clustered environments. Not all Dialects are known to support the retrieval of the database's current timestamp. Others may also be unsafe for usage in locking due to lack of precision (Oracle 8, for example).

6

generated (optional - defaults to never): specifies that this timestamp property value is actually generated by the database. See the discussion of generated properties for more information.

The <property> element declares a persistent JavaBean style property of the class.

<property
        name="propertyName"                                          (1)
        column="column_name"                                         (2)
        type="typename"                                              (3)
        update="true|false"                                          (4)
        insert="true|false"                                          (4)
        formula="arbitrary SQL expression"                           (5)
        access="field|property|ClassName"                            (6)
        lazy="true|false"                                            (7)
        unique="true|false"                                          (8)
        not-null="true|false"                                        (9)
        optimistic-lock="true|false"                                 (10)
        generated="never|insert|always"                              (11)
        node="element-name|@attribute-name|element/@attribute|."
        index="index_name"
        unique_key="unique_key_id"
        length="L"
        precision="P"
        scale="S"
/>
1

name: 属性的名字,以小写字母开头。

2

column (optional - defaults to the property name): the name of the mapped database table column. This can also be specified by nested <column> element(s).

3

type (可选): 一个Hibernate类型的名字。

4

update, insert (optional - defaults to true): specifies that the mapped columns should be included in SQL UPDATE and/or INSERT statements. Setting both to false allows a pure "derived" property whose value is initialized from some other property that maps to the same column(s), or by a trigger or other application.

5

formula (可选): 一个SQL表达式,定义了这个计算 (computed) 属性的值。计算属性没有和它对应的数据库字段。

6

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the property value.

7

lazy (optional - defaults to false): specifies that this property should be fetched lazily when the instance variable is first accessed. It requires build-time bytecode instrumentation.

8

unique (optional): enables the DDL generation of a unique constraint for the columns. Also, allow this to be the target of a property-ref.

9

not-null (optional): enables the DDL generation of a nullability constraint for the columns.

10

optimistic-lock (optional - defaults to true): specifies that updates to this property do or do not require acquisition of the optimistic lock. In other words, it determines if a version increment should occur when this property is dirty.

11

generated (optional - defaults to never): specifies that this property value is actually generated by the database. See the discussion of generated properties for more information.

typename可以是如下几种:

If you do not specify a type, Hibernate will use reflection upon the named property and guess the correct Hibernate type. Hibernate will attempt to interpret the name of the return class of the property getter using, in order, rules 2, 3, and 4. In certain cases you will need the type attribute. For example, to distinguish between Hibernate.DATE and Hibernate.TIMESTAMP, or to specify a custom type.

The access attribute allows you to control how Hibernate accesses the property at runtime. By default, Hibernate will call the property get/set pair. If you specify access="field", Hibernate will bypass the get/set pair and access the field directly using reflection. You can specify your own strategy for property access by naming a class that implements the interface org.hibernate.property.PropertyAccessor.

A powerful feature is derived properties. These properties are by definition read-only. The property value is computed at load time. You declare the computation as an SQL expression. This then translates to a SELECT clause subquery in the SQL query that loads an instance:

<property name="totalPrice"
    formula="( SELECT SUM (li.quantity*p.price) FROM LineItem li, Product p
                WHERE li.productId = p.productId
                AND li.customerId = customerId
                AND li.orderNumber = orderNumber )"/>

You can reference the entity table by not declaring an alias on a particular column. This would be customerId in the given example. You can also use the nested <formula> mapping element if you do not want to use the attribute.

An ordinary association to another persistent class is declared using a many-to-one element. The relational model is a many-to-one association; a foreign key in one table is referencing the primary key column(s) of the target table.

<many-to-one
        name="propertyName"                                          (1)
        column="column_name"                                         (2)
        class="ClassName"                                            (3)
        cascade="cascade_style"                                      (4)
        fetch="join|select"                                          (5)
        update="true|false"                                          (6)
        insert="true|false"                                          (6)
        property-ref="propertyNameFromAssociatedClass"               (7)
        access="field|property|ClassName"                            (8)
        unique="true|false"                                          (9)
        not-null="true|false"                                        (10)
        optimistic-lock="true|false"                                 (11)
        lazy="proxy|no-proxy|false"                                  (12)
        not-found="ignore|exception"                                 (13)
        entity-name="EntityName"                                     (14)
        formula="arbitrary SQL expression"                           (15)
        node="element-name|@attribute-name|element/@attribute|."
        embed-xml="true|false"
        index="index_name"
        unique_key="unique_key_id"
        foreign-key="foreign_key_name"
/>
1

name: the name of the property.

2

column (optional): the name of the foreign key column. This can also be specified by nested <column> element(s).

3

class (optional - defaults to the property type determined by reflection): the name of the associated class.

4

cascade (optional): specifies which operations should be cascaded from the parent object to the associated object.

5

fetch (optional - defaults to select): chooses between outer-join fetching or sequential select fetching.

6

update, insert (optional - defaults to true): specifies that the mapped columns should be included in SQL UPDATE and/or INSERT statements. Setting both to false allows a pure "derived" association whose value is initialized from another property that maps to the same column(s), or by a trigger or other application.

7

property-ref (optional): the name of a property of the associated class that is joined to this foreign key. If not specified, the primary key of the associated class is used.

8

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the property value.

9

unique (optional): enables the DDL generation of a unique constraint for the foreign-key column. By allowing this to be the target of a property-ref, you can make the association multiplicity one-to-one.

10

not-null (optional): enables the DDL generation of a nullability constraint for the foreign key columns.

11

optimistic-lock (optional - defaults to true): specifies that updates to this property do or do not require acquisition of the optimistic lock. In other words, it determines if a version increment should occur when this property is dirty.

12

lazy (optional - defaults to proxy): by default, single point associations are proxied. lazy="no-proxy" specifies that the property should be fetched lazily when the instance variable is first accessed. This requires build-time bytecode instrumentation. lazy="false" specifies that the association will always be eagerly fetched.

13

not-found (optional - defaults to exception): specifies how foreign keys that reference missing rows will be handled. ignore will treat a missing row as a null association.

14

entity-name (optional): the entity name of the associated class.

15

formula (可选): SQL表达式,用于定义computed(计算出的)外键值。

Setting a value of the cascade attribute to any meaningful value other than none will propagate certain operations to the associated object. The meaningful values are divided into three categories. First, basic operations, which include: persist, merge, delete, save-update, evict, replicate, lock and refresh; second, special values: delete-orphan; and third,all comma-separated combinations of operation names: cascade="persist,merge,evict" or cascade="all,delete-orphan". See 第 10.11 节 “传播性持久化(transitive persistence)” for a full explanation. Note that single valued, many-to-one and one-to-one, associations do not support orphan delete.

Here is an example of a typical many-to-one declaration:

<many-to-one name="product" class="Product" column="PRODUCT_ID"/>

The property-ref attribute should only be used for mapping legacy data where a foreign key refers to a unique key of the associated table other than the primary key. This is a complicated and confusing relational model. For example, if the Product class had a unique serial number that is not the primary key. The unique attribute controls Hibernate's DDL generation with the SchemaExport tool.

<property name="serialNumber" unique="true" type="string" column="SERIAL_NUMBER"/>

那么关于OrderItem 的映射可能是:

<many-to-one name="product" property-ref="serialNumber" column="PRODUCT_SERIAL_NUMBER"/>

This is not encouraged, however.

如果被引用的唯一主键由关联实体的多个属性组成,你应该在名称为<properties>的元素 里面映射所有关联的属性。

If the referenced unique key is the property of a component, you can specify a property path:

<many-to-one name="owner" property-ref="identity.ssn" column="OWNER_SSN"/>

持久化对象之间一对一的关联关系是通过one-to-one元素定义的。

<one-to-one
        name="propertyName"                                          (1)
        class="ClassName"                                            (2)
        cascade="cascade_style"                                      (3)
        constrained="true|false"                                     (4)
        fetch="join|select"                                          (5)
        property-ref="propertyNameFromAssociatedClass"               (6)
        access="field|property|ClassName"                            (7)
        formula="any SQL expression"                                 (8)
        lazy="proxy|no-proxy|false"                                  (9)
        entity-name="EntityName"                                     (10)
        node="element-name|@attribute-name|element/@attribute|."
        embed-xml="true|false"
        foreign-key="foreign_key_name"
/>
1

name: the name of the property.

2

class (optional - defaults to the property type determined by reflection): the name of the associated class.

3

cascade (optional): specifies which operations should be cascaded from the parent object to the associated object.

4

constrained (optional): specifies that a foreign key constraint on the primary key of the mapped table and references the table of the associated class. This option affects the order in which save() and delete() are cascaded, and determines whether the association can be proxied. It is also used by the schema export tool.

5

fetch (optional - defaults to select): chooses between outer-join fetching or sequential select fetching.

6

property-ref (optional): the name of a property of the associated class that is joined to the primary key of this class. If not specified, the primary key of the associated class is used.

7

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the property value.

8

formula (optional): almost all one-to-one associations map to the primary key of the owning entity. If this is not the case, you can specify another column, columns or expression to join on using an SQL formula. See org.hibernate.test.onetooneformula for an example.

9

lazy (optional - defaults to proxy): by default, single point associations are proxied. lazy="no-proxy" specifies that the property should be fetched lazily when the instance variable is first accessed. It requires build-time bytecode instrumentation. lazy="false" specifies that the association will always be eagerly fetched. Note that if constrained="false", proxying is impossible and Hibernate will eagerly fetch the association.

10

entity-name (optional): the entity name of the associated class.

There are two varieties of one-to-one associations:

Primary key associations do not need an extra table column. If two rows are related by the association, then the two table rows share the same primary key value. To relate two objects by a primary key association, ensure that they are assigned the same identifier value.

For a primary key association, add the following mappings to Employee and Person respectively:

<one-to-one name="person" class="Person"/>
<one-to-one name="employee" class="Employee" constrained="true"/>

Ensure that the primary keys of the related rows in the PERSON and EMPLOYEE tables are equal. You use a special Hibernate identifier generation strategy called foreign:

<class name="person" table="PERSON">
    <id name="id" column="PERSON_ID">
        <generator class="foreign">
            <param name="property">employee</param>
        </generator>
    </id>
    ...
    <one-to-one name="employee"
        class="Employee"
        constrained="true"/>
</class>

A newly saved instance of Person is assigned the same primary key value as the Employee instance referred with the employee property of that Person.

Alternatively, a foreign key with a unique constraint, from Employee to Person, can be expressed as:

<many-to-one name="person" class="Person" column="PERSON_ID" unique="true"/>

This association can be made bidirectional by adding the following to the Person mapping:

<one-to-one name="employee" class="Employee" property-ref="person"/>

The <component> element maps properties of a child object to columns of the table of a parent class. Components can, in turn, declare their own properties, components or collections. See the "Component" examples below:

<component
        name="propertyName"                 (1)
        class="className"                   (2)
        insert="true|false"                 (3)
        update="true|false"                 (4)
        access="field|property|ClassName"   (5)
        lazy="true|false"                   (6)
        optimistic-lock="true|false"        (7)
        unique="true|false"                 (8)
        node="element-name|."
>

        <property ...../>
        <many-to-one .... />
        ........
</component>
1

name: the name of the property.

2

class (optional - defaults to the property type determined by reflection): the name of the component (child) class.

3

insert: do the mapped columns appear in SQL INSERTs?

4

update: do the mapped columns appear in SQL UPDATEs?

5

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the property value.

6

lazy (optional - defaults to false): specifies that this component should be fetched lazily when the instance variable is first accessed. It requires build-time bytecode instrumentation.

7

optimistic-lock (optional - defaults to true): specifies that updates to this component either do or do not require acquisition of the optimistic lock. It determines if a version increment should occur when this property is dirty.

8

unique (optional - defaults to false): specifies that a unique constraint exists upon all mapped columns of the component.

<property>子标签为子类的一些属性与表字段之间建立映射。

<component>元素允许加入一个<parent>子元素,在组件类内部就可以有一个指向其容器的实体的反向引用。

The <dynamic-component> element allows a Map to be mapped as a component, where the property names refer to keys of the map. See 第 8.5 节 “动态组件 (Dynamic components)” for more information.

The <properties> element allows the definition of a named, logical grouping of the properties of a class. The most important use of the construct is that it allows a combination of properties to be the target of a property-ref. It is also a convenient way to define a multi-column unique constraint. For example:

<properties
        name="logicalName"                  (1)
        insert="true|false"                 (2)
        update="true|false"                 (3)
        optimistic-lock="true|false"        (4)
        unique="true|false"                 (5)
>

        <property ...../>
        <many-to-one .... />
        ........
</properties>
1

name: the logical name of the grouping. It is not an actual property name.

2

insert: do the mapped columns appear in SQL INSERTs?

3

update: do the mapped columns appear in SQL UPDATEs?

4

optimistic-lock (optional - defaults to true): specifies that updates to these properties either do or do not require acquisition of the optimistic lock. It determines if a version increment should occur when these properties are dirty.

5

unique (optional - defaults to false): specifies that a unique constraint exists upon all mapped columns of the component.

例如,如果我们有如下的<properties>映射:

<class name="Person">
    <id name="personNumber"/>

    ...
    <properties name="name"
            unique="true" update="false">
        <property name="firstName"/>
        <property name="initial"/>
        <property name="lastName"/>
    </properties>
</class>

You might have some legacy data association that refers to this unique key of the Person table, instead of to the primary key:

<many-to-one name="person"
         class="Person" property-ref="name">
    <column name="firstName"/>
    <column name="initial"/>
    <column name="lastName"/>
</many-to-one>

The use of this outside the context of mapping legacy data is not recommended.

Each subclass can also be mapped to its own table. This is called the table-per-subclass mapping strategy. An inherited state is retrieved by joining with the table of the superclass. To do this you use the <joined-subclass> element. For example:

<joined-subclass
        name="ClassName"                    (1)
        table="tablename"                   (2)
        proxy="ProxyInterface"              (3)
        lazy="true|false"                   (4)
        dynamic-update="true|false"
        dynamic-insert="true|false"
        schema="schema"
        catalog="catalog"
        extends="SuperclassName"
        persister="ClassName"
        subselect="SQL expression"
        entity-name="EntityName"
        node="element-name">

        <key .... >

        <property .... />
        .....
</joined-subclass>
1

name: the fully qualified class name of the subclass.

2

table: the name of the subclass table.

3

proxy (optional): specifies a class or interface to use for lazy initializing proxies.

4

lazy (optional, defaults to true): setting lazy="false" disables the use of lazy fetching.

A discriminator column is not required for this mapping strategy. Each subclass must, however, declare a table column holding the object identifier using the <key> element. The mapping at the start of the chapter would then be re-written as:

<?xml version="1.0"?>
<!DOCTYPE hibernate-mapping PUBLIC
        "-//Hibernate/Hibernate Mapping DTD//EN"
        "http://hibernate.sourceforge.net/hibernate-mapping-3.0.dtd">

<hibernate-mapping package="eg">

        <class name="Cat" table="CATS">
                <id name="id" column="uid" type="long">
                        <generator class="hilo"/>
                </id>
                <property name="birthdate" type="date"/>
                <property name="color" not-null="true"/>
                <property name="sex" not-null="true"/>
                <property name="weight"/>
                <many-to-one name="mate"/>
                <set name="kittens">
                        <key column="MOTHER"/>
                        <one-to-many class="Cat"/>
                </set>
                <joined-subclass name="DomesticCat" table="DOMESTIC_CATS">
                    <key column="CAT"/>
                    <property name="name" type="string"/>
                </joined-subclass>
        </class>

        <class name="eg.Dog">
                <!-- mapping for Dog could go here -->
        </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

For information about inheritance mappings see 第 9 章 Inheritance mapping.

Using the <join> element, it is possible to map properties of one class to several tables that have a one-to-one relationship. For example:

<join
        table="tablename"                        (1)
        schema="owner"                           (2)
        catalog="catalog"                        (3)
        fetch="join|select"                      (4)
        inverse="true|false"                     (5)
        optional="true|false">                   (6)

        <key ... />

        <property ... />
        ...
</join>
1

table: the name of the joined table.

2

schema (optional): overrides the schema name specified by the root <hibernate-mapping> element.

3

catalog (optional): overrides the catalog name specified by the root <hibernate-mapping> element.

4

fetch (optional - defaults to join): if set to join, the default, Hibernate will use an inner join to retrieve a <join> defined by a class or its superclasses. It will use an outer join for a <join> defined by a subclass. If set to select then Hibernate will use a sequential select for a <join> defined on a subclass. This will be issued only if a row represents an instance of the subclass. Inner joins will still be used to retrieve a <join> defined by the class and its superclasses.

5

inverse (optional - defaults to false): if enabled, Hibernate will not insert or update the properties defined by this join.

6

optional (optional - defaults to false): if enabled, Hibernate will insert a row only if the properties defined by this join are non-null. It will always use an outer join to retrieve the properties.

For example, address information for a person can be mapped to a separate table while preserving value type semantics for all properties:

<class name="Person"
    table="PERSON">

    <id name="id" column="PERSON_ID">...</id>

    <join table="ADDRESS">
        <key column="ADDRESS_ID"/>
        <property name="address"/>
        <property name="zip"/>
        <property name="country"/>
    </join>
    ...

This feature is often only useful for legacy data models. We recommend fewer tables than classes and a fine-grained domain model. However, it is useful for switching between inheritance mapping strategies in a single hierarchy, as explained later.

The <key> element has featured a few times within this guide. It appears anywhere the parent mapping element defines a join to a new table that references the primary key of the original table. It also defines the foreign key in the joined table:

<key
        column="columnname"                      (1)
        on-delete="noaction|cascade"             (2)
        property-ref="propertyName"              (3)
        not-null="true|false"                    (4)
        update="true|false"                      (5)
        unique="true|false"                      (6)
/>
1

column (optional): the name of the foreign key column. This can also be specified by nested <column> element(s).

2

on-delete (optional - defaults to noaction): specifies whether the foreign key constraint has database-level cascade delete enabled.

3

property-ref (optional): specifies that the foreign key refers to columns that are not the primary key of the original table. It is provided for legacy data.

4

not-null (optional): specifies that the foreign key columns are not nullable. This is implied whenever the foreign key is also part of the primary key.

5

update (optional): specifies that the foreign key should never be updated. This is implied whenever the foreign key is also part of the primary key.

6

unique (optional): specifies that the foreign key should have a unique constraint. This is implied whenever the foreign key is also the primary key.

For systems where delete performance is important, we recommend that all keys should be defined on-delete="cascade". Hibernate uses a database-level ON CASCADE DELETE constraint, instead of many individual DELETE statements. Be aware that this feature bypasses Hibernate's usual optimistic locking strategy for versioned data.

The not-null and update attributes are useful when mapping a unidirectional one-to-many association. If you map a unidirectional one-to-many association to a non-nullable foreign key, you must declare the key column using <key not-null="true">.

There is one more type of property mapping. The <any> mapping element defines a polymorphic association to classes from multiple tables. This type of mapping requires more than one column. The first column contains the type of the associated entity. The remaining columns contain the identifier. It is impossible to specify a foreign key constraint for this kind of association. This is not the usual way of mapping polymorphic associations and you should use this only in special cases. For example, for audit logs, user session data, etc.

The meta-type attribute allows the application to specify a custom type that maps database column values to persistent classes that have identifier properties of the type specified by id-type. You must specify the mapping from values of the meta-type to class names.

<any name="being" id-type="long" meta-type="string">
    <meta-value value="TBL_ANIMAL" class="Animal"/>
    <meta-value value="TBL_HUMAN" class="Human"/>
    <meta-value value="TBL_ALIEN" class="Alien"/>
    <column name="table_name"/>
    <column name="id"/>
</any>
<any
        name="propertyName"                      (1)
        id-type="idtypename"                     (2)
        meta-type="metatypename"                 (3)
        cascade="cascade_style"                  (4)
        access="field|property|ClassName"        (5)
        optimistic-lock="true|false"             (6)
>
        <meta-value ... />
        <meta-value ... />
        .....
        <column .... />
        <column .... />
        .....
</any>
1

name: 属性名

2

id-type: 标识符类型

3

meta-type (optional - defaults to string): any type that is allowed for a discriminator mapping.

4

cascade (可选 -默认是none): 级联的类型

5

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the property value.

6

optimistic-lock (optional - defaults to true): specifies that updates to this property either do or do not require acquisition of the optimistic lock. It defines whether a version increment should occur if this property is dirty.

In relation to the persistence service, Java language-level objects are classified into two groups:

An entity exists independently of any other objects holding references to the entity. Contrast this with the usual Java model, where an unreferenced object is garbage collected. Entities must be explicitly saved and deleted. Saves and deletions, however, can be cascaded from a parent entity to its children. This is different from the ODMG model of object persistence by reachability and corresponds more closely to how application objects are usually used in large systems. Entities support circular and shared references. They can also be versioned.

An entity's persistent state consists of references to other entities and instances of value types. Values are primitives: collections (not what is inside a collection), components and certain immutable objects. Unlike entities, values in particular collections and components, are persisted and deleted by reachability. Since value objects and primitives are persisted and deleted along with their containing entity, they cannot be independently versioned. Values have no independent identity, so they cannot be shared by two entities or collections.

Until now, we have been using the term "persistent class" to refer to entities. We will continue to do that. Not all user-defined classes with a persistent state, however, are entities. A component is a user-defined class with value semantics. A Java property of type java.lang.String also has value semantics. Given this definition, all types (classes) provided by the JDK have value type semantics in Java, while user-defined types can be mapped with entity or value type semantics. This decision is up to the application developer. An entity class in a domain model will normally have shared references to a single instance of that class, while composition or aggregation usually translates to a value type.

We will revisit both concepts throughout this reference guide.

The challenge is to map the Java type system, and the developers' definition of entities and value types, to the SQL/database type system. The bridge between both systems is provided by Hibernate. For entities, <class>, <subclass> and so on are used. For value types we use <property>, <component>etc., that usually have a type attribute. The value of this attribute is the name of a Hibernate mapping type. Hibernate provides a range of mappings for standard JDK value types out of the box. You can write your own mapping types and implement your own custom conversion strategies.

With the exception of collections, all built-in Hibernate types support null semantics.

The built-in basic mapping types can be roughly categorized into the following:

integer, long, short, float, double, character, byte, boolean, yes_no, true_false

这些类型都对应Java的原始类型或者其封装类,来符合(特定厂商的)SQL 字段类型。boolean, yes_notrue_false都是Java 中boolean 或者java.lang.Boolean的另外说法。

string

java.lang.StringVARCHAR (或者 Oracle的 VARCHAR2)的映射。

date, time, timestamp

java.util.Date和其子类到SQL类型DATE, TIMETIMESTAMP (或等价类型)的映射。

calendar, calendar_date

java.util.Calendar 到SQL 类型TIMESTAMPDATE(或等价类型)的映射。

big_decimal, big_integer

java.math.BigDecimaljava.math.BigIntegerNUMERIC (或者 Oracle 的NUMBER类型)的映射。

locale, timezone, currency

java.util.Locale, java.util.TimeZonejava.util.CurrencyVARCHAR (或者 Oracle 的VARCHAR2类型)的映射. LocaleCurrency 的实例被映射为它们的ISO代码。TimeZone的实例被影射为它的ID

class

java.lang.ClassVARCHAR (或者 Oracle 的VARCHAR2类型)的映射。Class被映射为它的全限定名。

binary

把字节数组(byte arrays)映射为对应的 SQL二进制类型。

text

把长Java字符串映射为SQL的CLOB或者TEXT类型。

serializable

Maps serializable Java types to an appropriate SQL binary type. You can also indicate the Hibernate type serializable with the name of a serializable Java class or interface that does not default to a basic type.

clob, blob

Type mappings for the JDBC classes java.sql.Clob and java.sql.Blob. These types can be inconvenient for some applications, since the blob or clob object cannot be reused outside of a transaction. Driver support is patchy and inconsistent.

imm_date, imm_time, imm_timestamp, imm_calendar, imm_calendar_date, imm_serializable, imm_binary

Type mappings for what are considered mutable Java types. This is where Hibernate makes certain optimizations appropriate only for immutable Java types, and the application treats the object as immutable. For example, you should not call Date.setTime() for an instance mapped as imm_timestamp. To change the value of the property, and have that change made persistent, the application must assign a new, nonidentical, object to the property.

Unique identifiers of entities and collections can be of any basic type except binary, blob and clob. Composite identifiers are also allowed. See below for more information.

org.hibernate.Hibernate中,定义了基础类型对应的Type常量。比如,Hibernate.STRING代表string 类型。

It is relatively easy for developers to create their own value types. For example, you might want to persist properties of type java.lang.BigInteger to VARCHAR columns. Hibernate does not provide a built-in type for this. Custom types are not limited to mapping a property, or collection element, to a single table column. So, for example, you might have a Java property getName()/setName() of type java.lang.String that is persisted to the columns FIRST_NAME, INITIAL, SURNAME.

To implement a custom type, implement either org.hibernate.UserType or org.hibernate.CompositeUserType and declare properties using the fully qualified classname of the type. View org.hibernate.test.DoubleStringType to see the kind of things that are possible.

<property name="twoStrings" type="org.hibernate.test.DoubleStringType">
    <column name="first_string"/>
    <column name="second_string"/>
</property>

注意使用<column>标签来把一个属性映射到多个字段的做法。

CompositeUserType, EnhancedUserType, UserCollectionType, 和 UserVersionType 接口为更特殊的使用方式提供支持。

You can even supply parameters to a UserType in the mapping file. To do this, your UserType must implement the org.hibernate.usertype.ParameterizedType interface. To supply parameters to your custom type, you can use the <type> element in your mapping files.

<property name="priority">
    <type name="com.mycompany.usertypes.DefaultValueIntegerType">
        <param name="default">0</param>
    </type>
</property>

现在,UserType 可以从传入的Properties对象中得到default 参数的值。

If you regularly use a certain UserType, it is useful to define a shorter name for it. You can do this using the <typedef> element. Typedefs assign a name to a custom type, and can also contain a list of default parameter values if the type is parameterized.

<typedef class="com.mycompany.usertypes.DefaultValueIntegerType" name="default_zero">
    <param name="default">0</param>
</typedef>
<property name="priority" type="default_zero"/>

也可以根据具体案例通过属性映射中的类型参数覆盖在typedef中提供的参数。

Even though Hibernate's rich range of built-in types and support for components means you will rarely need to use a custom type, it is considered good practice to use custom types for non-entity classes that occur frequently in your application. For example, a MonetaryAmount class is a good candidate for a CompositeUserType, even though it could be mapped as a component. One reason for this is abstraction. With a custom type, your mapping documents would be protected against changes to the way monetary values are represented.

XML does not suit all users so there are some alternative ways to define O/R mapping metadata in Hibernate.

Many Hibernate users prefer to embed mapping information directly in sourcecode using XDoclet @hibernate.tags. We do not cover this approach in this reference guide since it is considered part of XDoclet. However, we include the following example of the Cat class with XDoclet mappings:

package eg;
import java.util.Set;
import java.util.Date;

/**
 * @hibernate.class
 *  table="CATS"
 */
public class Cat {
    private Long id; // identifier
    private Date birthdate;
    private Cat mother;
    private Set kittens
    private Color color;
    private char sex;
    private float weight;

    /*
     * @hibernate.id
     *  generator-class="native"
     *  column="CAT_ID"
     */
    public Long getId() {
        return id;
    }
    private void setId(Long id) {
        this.id=id;
    }

    /**
     * @hibernate.many-to-one
     *  column="PARENT_ID"
     */
    public Cat getMother() {
        return mother;
    }
    void setMother(Cat mother) {
        this.mother = mother;
    }

    /**
     * @hibernate.property
     *  column="BIRTH_DATE"
     */
    public Date getBirthdate() {
        return birthdate;
    }
    void setBirthdate(Date date) {
        birthdate = date;
    }
    /**
     * @hibernate.property
     *  column="WEIGHT"
     */
    public float getWeight() {
        return weight;
    }
    void setWeight(float weight) {
        this.weight = weight;
    }

    /**
     * @hibernate.property
     *  column="COLOR"
     *  not-null="true"
     */
    public Color getColor() {
        return color;
    }
    void setColor(Color color) {
        this.color = color;
    }
    /**
     * @hibernate.set
     *  inverse="true"
     *  order-by="BIRTH_DATE"
     * @hibernate.collection-key
     *  column="PARENT_ID"
     * @hibernate.collection-one-to-many
     */
    public Set getKittens() {
        return kittens;
    }
    void setKittens(Set kittens) {
        this.kittens = kittens;
    }
    // addKitten not needed by Hibernate
    public void addKitten(Cat kitten) {
        kittens.add(kitten);
    }

    /**
     * @hibernate.property
     *  column="SEX"
     *  not-null="true"
     *  update="false"
     */
    public char getSex() {
        return sex;
    }
    void setSex(char sex) {
        this.sex=sex;
    }
}

See the Hibernate website for more examples of XDoclet and Hibernate.

Hibernate requires that persistent collection-valued fields be declared as an interface type. For example:

public class Product {
    private String serialNumber;
    private Set parts = new HashSet();
    
    public Set getParts() { return parts; }
    void setParts(Set parts) { this.parts = parts; }
    public String getSerialNumber() { return serialNumber; }
    void setSerialNumber(String sn) { serialNumber = sn; }
}

The actual interface might be java.util.Set, java.util.Collection, java.util.List, java.util.Map, java.util.SortedSet, java.util.SortedMap or anything you like ("anything you like" means you will have to write an implementation of org.hibernate.usertype.UserCollectionType.)

Notice how the instance variable was initialized with an instance of HashSet. This is the best way to initialize collection valued properties of newly instantiated (non-persistent) instances. When you make the instance persistent, by calling persist() for example, Hibernate will actually replace the HashSet with an instance of Hibernate's own implementation of Set. Be aware of the following errors:

Cat cat = new DomesticCat();
Cat kitten = new DomesticCat();
....
Set kittens = new HashSet();
kittens.add(kitten);
cat.setKittens(kittens);
session.persist(cat);
kittens = cat.getKittens(); // Okay, kittens collection is a Set
(HashSet) cat.getKittens(); // Error!

The persistent collections injected by Hibernate behave like HashMap, HashSet, TreeMap, TreeSet or ArrayList, depending on the interface type.

Collections instances have the usual behavior of value types. They are automatically persisted when referenced by a persistent object and are automatically deleted when unreferenced. If a collection is passed from one persistent object to another, its elements might be moved from one table to another. Two entities cannot share a reference to the same collection instance. Due to the underlying relational model, collection-valued properties do not support null value semantics. Hibernate does not distinguish between a null collection reference and an empty collection.

Use persistent collections the same way you use ordinary Java collections. However, please ensure you understand the semantics of bidirectional associations (these are discussed later).

The Hibernate mapping element used for mapping a collection depends upon the type of interface. For example, a <set> element is used for mapping properties of type Set.

<class name="Product">
    <id name="serialNumber" column="productSerialNumber"/>
    <set name="parts">
        <key column="productSerialNumber" not-null="true"/>
        <one-to-many class="Part"/>
    </set>
</class>

除了<set>,还有<list>, <map>, <bag>, <array><primitive-array> 映射元素。<map>具有代表性:

<map
    name="propertyName"                                         (1)
    table="table_name"                                          (2)
    schema="schema_name"                                        (3)
    lazy="true|extra|false"                                     (4)
    inverse="true|false"                                        (5)
    cascade="all|none|save-update|delete|all-delete-orphan|delet(6)e-orphan"
    sort="unsorted|natural|comparatorClass"                     (7)
    order-by="column_name asc|desc"                             (8)
    where="arbitrary sql where condition"                       (9)
    fetch="join|select|subselect"                               (10)
    batch-size="N"                                              (11)
    access="field|property|ClassName"                           (12)
    optimistic-lock="true|false"                                (13)
    mutable="true|false"                                        (14)
    node="element-name|."
    embed-xml="true|false"
>

    <key .... />
    <map-key .... />
    <element .... />
</map>
1

name: the collection property name

2

table (optional - defaults to property name): the name of the collection table. It is not used for one-to-many associations.

3

schema (optional): the name of a table schema to override the schema declared on the root element

4

lazy (optional - defaults to true): disables lazy fetching and specifies that the association is always eagerly fetched. It can also be used to enable "extra-lazy" fetching where most operations do not initialize the collection. This is suitable for large collections.

5

inverse (optional - defaults to false): marks this collection as the "inverse" end of a bidirectional association.

6

cascade (optional - defaults to none): enables operations to cascade to child entities.

7

sort (optional): specifies a sorted collection with natural sort order or a given comparator class.

8

order-by (optional, JDK1.4 only): specifies a table column or columns that define the iteration order of the Map, Set or bag, together with an optional asc or desc.

9

where (optional): specifies an arbitrary SQL WHERE condition that is used when retrieving or removing the collection. This is useful if the collection needs to contain only a subset of the available data.

10

fetch (optional, defaults to select): chooses between outer-join fetching, fetching by sequential select, and fetching by sequential subselect.

11

batch-size (optional, defaults to 1): specifies a "batch size" for lazily fetching instances of this collection.

12

access (optional - defaults to property): the strategy Hibernate uses for accessing the collection property value.

13

optimistic-lock (optional - defaults to true): specifies that changes to the state of the collection results in increments of the owning entity's version. For one-to-many associations you may want to disable this setting.

14

mutable (optional - defaults to true): a value of false specifies that the elements of the collection never change. This allows for minor performance optimization in some cases.

All collection mappings, except those with set and bag semantics, need an index column in the collection table. An index column is a column that maps to an array index, or List index, or Map key. The index of a Map may be of any basic type, mapped with <map-key>. It can be an entity reference mapped with <map-key-many-to-many>, or it can be a composite type mapped with <composite-map-key>. The index of an array or list is always of type integer and is mapped using the <list-index> element. The mapped column contains sequential integers that are numbered from zero by default.

<list-index 
        column="column_name"                (1)
        base="0|1|..."/>
1

column_name (required): the name of the column holding the collection index values.

1

base (optional - defaults to 0): the value of the index column that corresponds to the first element of the list or array.

<map-key 
        column="column_name"                (1)
        formula="any SQL expression"        (2)
        type="type_name"                    (3)
        node="@attribute-name"
        length="N"/>
1

column (optional): the name of the column holding the collection index values.

2

formula (optional): a SQL formula used to evaluate the key of the map.

3

type (required): the type of the map keys.

<map-key-many-to-many
        column="column_name"                (1)
        formula="any SQL expression"        (2)(3)
        class="ClassName"
/>
1

column (optional): the name of the foreign key column for the collection index values.

2

formula (optional): a SQ formula used to evaluate the foreign key of the map key.

3

class (required): the entity class used as the map key.

If your table does not have an index column, and you still wish to use List as the property type, you can map the property as a Hibernate <bag>. A bag does not retain its order when it is retrieved from the database, but it can be optionally sorted or ordered.

Any collection of values or many-to-many associations requires a dedicated collection table with a foreign key column or columns, collection element column or columns, and possibly an index column or columns.

For a collection of values use the <element> tag. For example:

<element
        column="column_name"                     (1)
        formula="any SQL expression"             (2)
        type="typename"                          (3)
        length="L"
        precision="P"
        scale="S"
        not-null="true|false"
        unique="true|false"
        node="element-name"
/>
1

column (optional): the name of the column holding the collection element values.

2

formula (optional): an SQL formula used to evaluate the element.

3

type (required): the type of the collection element.

A many-to-many association is specified using the <many-to-many> element.

<many-to-many
        column="column_name"                               (1)
        formula="any SQL expression"                       (2)
        class="ClassName"                                  (3)
        fetch="select|join"                                (4)
        unique="true|false"                                (5)
        not-found="ignore|exception"                       (6)
        entity-name="EntityName"                           (7)
        property-ref="propertyNameFromAssociatedClass"     (8)
        node="element-name"
        embed-xml="true|false"
    />
1

column (optional): the name of the element foreign key column.

2

formula (optional): an SQL formula used to evaluate the element foreign key value.

3

class (required): the name of the associated class.

4

fetch (optional - defaults to join): enables outer-join or sequential select fetching for this association. This is a special case; for full eager fetching in a single SELECT of an entity and its many-to-many relationships to other entities, you would enable join fetching,not only of the collection itself, but also with this attribute on the <many-to-many> nested element.

5

unique (optional): enables the DDL generation of a unique constraint for the foreign-key column. This makes the association multiplicity effectively one-to-many.

6

not-found (optional - defaults to exception): specifies how foreign keys that reference missing rows will be handled: ignore will treat a missing row as a null association.

7

entity-name (optional): the entity name of the associated class, as an alternative to class.

8

property-ref (optional): the name of a property of the associated class that is joined to this foreign key. If not specified, the primary key of the associated class is used.

Here are some examples.

A set of strings:

<set name="names" table="person_names">
    <key column="person_id"/>
    <element column="person_name" type="string"/>
</set>

A bag containing integers with an iteration order determined by the order-by attribute:

<bag name="sizes" 
        table="item_sizes" 
        order-by="size asc">
    <key column="item_id"/>
    <element column="size" type="integer"/>
</bag>

An array of entities, in this case, a many-to-many association:

<array name="addresses" 
        table="PersonAddress" 
        cascade="persist">
    <key column="personId"/>
    <list-index column="sortOrder"/>
    <many-to-many column="addressId" class="Address"/>
</array>

一个组件的列表:(下一章讨论)

<map name="holidays" 
        table="holidays" 
        schema="dbo" 
        order-by="hol_name asc">
    <key column="id"/>
    <map-key column="hol_name" type="string"/>
    <element column="hol_date" type="date"/>
</map>

A list of components (this is discussed in the next chapter):

<list name="carComponents" 
        table="CarComponents">
    <key column="carId"/>
    <list-index column="sortOrder"/>
    <composite-element class="CarComponent">
        <property name="price"/>
        <property name="type"/>
        <property name="serialNumber" column="serialNum"/>
    </composite-element>
</list>

A one-to-many association links the tables of two classes via a foreign key with no intervening collection table. This mapping loses certain semantics of normal Java collections:

An association from Product to Part requires the existence of a foreign key column and possibly an index column to the Part table. A <one-to-many> tag indicates that this is a one-to-many association.

<one-to-many 
        class="ClassName"                                  (1)
        not-found="ignore|exception"                       (2)
        entity-name="EntityName"                           (3)
        node="element-name"
        embed-xml="true|false"
    />
1

class (required): the name of the associated class.

2

not-found (optional - defaults to exception): specifies how cached identifiers that reference missing rows will be handled. ignore will treat a missing row as a null association.

3

entity-name (optional): the entity name of the associated class, as an alternative to class.

The <one-to-many> element does not need to declare any columns. Nor is it necessary to specify the table name anywhere.

The following example shows a map of Part entities by name, where partName is a persistent property of Part. Notice the use of a formula-based index:

<map name="parts"
        cascade="all">
    <key column="productId" not-null="true"/>
    <map-key formula="partName"/>
    <one-to-many class="Part"/>
</map>

Hibernate支持实现java.util.SortedMapjava.util.SortedSet的集合。 你必须在映射文件中指定一个比较器:

<set name="aliases" 
            table="person_aliases" 
            sort="natural">
    <key column="person"/>
    <element column="name" type="string"/>
</set>

<map name="holidays" sort="my.custom.HolidayComparator">
    <key column="year_id"/>
    <map-key column="hol_name" type="string"/>
    <element column="hol_date" type="date"/>
</map>

sort属性中允许的值包括unsorted,natural和某个实现了java.util.Comparator的类的名称。

分类集合的行为事实上象java.util.TreeSet或者java.util.TreeMap

If you want the database itself to order the collection elements, use the order-by attribute of set, bag or map mappings. This solution is only available under JDK 1.4 or higher and is implemented using LinkedHashSet or LinkedHashMap. This performs the ordering in the SQL query and not in the memory.

<set name="aliases" table="person_aliases" order-by="lower(name) asc">
    <key column="person"/>
    <element column="name" type="string"/>
</set>

<map name="holidays" order-by="hol_date, hol_name">
    <key column="year_id"/>
    <map-key column="hol_name" type="string"/>
    <element column="hol_date type="date"/>
</map>

Associations can even be sorted by arbitrary criteria at runtime using a collection filter():

sortedUsers = s.createFilter( group.getUsers(), "order by this.name" ).list();

A bidirectional association allows navigation from both "ends" of the association. Two kinds of bidirectional association are supported:

You can specify a bidirectional many-to-many association by mapping two many-to-many associations to the same database table and declaring one end as inverse. You cannot select an indexed collection.

Here is an example of a bidirectional many-to-many association that illustrates how each category can have many items and each item can be in many categories:

<class name="Category">
    <id name="id" column="CATEGORY_ID"/>
    ...
    <bag name="items" table="CATEGORY_ITEM">
        <key column="CATEGORY_ID"/>
        <many-to-many class="Item" column="ITEM_ID"/>
    </bag>
</class>

<class name="Item">
    <id name="id" column="ITEM_ID"/>
    ...

    <!-- inverse end -->
    <bag name="categories" table="CATEGORY_ITEM" inverse="true">
        <key column="ITEM_ID"/>
        <many-to-many class="Category" column="CATEGORY_ID"/>
    </bag>
</class>

Changes made only to the inverse end of the association are not persisted. This means that Hibernate has two representations in memory for every bidirectional association: one link from A to B and another link from B to A. This is easier to understand if you think about the Java object model and how a many-to-many relationship in Javais created:

category.getItems().add(item);          // The category now "knows" about the relationship
item.getCategories().add(category);     // The item now "knows" about the relationship

session.persist(item);                   // The relationship won't be saved!
session.persist(category);               // The relationship will be saved

非反向端用于把内存中的表示保存到数据库中。

You can define a bidirectional one-to-many association by mapping a one-to-many association to the same table column(s) as a many-to-one association and declaring the many-valued end inverse="true".

<class name="Parent">
    <id name="id" column="parent_id"/>
    ....
    <set name="children" inverse="true">
        <key column="parent_id"/>
        <one-to-many class="Child"/>
    </set>
</class>

<class name="Child">
    <id name="id" column="child_id"/>
    ....
    <many-to-one name="parent" 
        class="Parent" 
        column="parent_id"
        not-null="true"/>
</class>

Mapping one end of an association with inverse="true" does not affect the operation of cascades as these are orthogonal concepts.

A bidirectional association where one end is represented as a <list> or <map>, requires special consideration. If there is a property of the child class that maps to the index column you can use inverse="true" on the collection mapping:

<class name="Parent">
    <id name="id" column="parent_id"/>
    ....
    <map name="children" inverse="true">
        <key column="parent_id"/>
        <map-key column="name" 
            type="string"/>
        <one-to-many class="Child"/>
    </map>
</class>

<class name="Child">
    <id name="id" column="child_id"/>
    ....
    <property name="name" 
        not-null="true"/>
    <many-to-one name="parent" 
        class="Parent" 
        column="parent_id"
        not-null="true"/>
</class>

If there is no such property on the child class, the association cannot be considered truly bidirectional. That is, there is information available at one end of the association that is not available at the other end. In this case, you cannot map the collection inverse="true". Instead, you could use the following mapping:

<class name="Parent">
    <id name="id" column="parent_id"/>
    ....
    <map name="children">
        <key column="parent_id"
            not-null="true"/>
        <map-key column="name" 
            type="string"/>
        <one-to-many class="Child"/>
    </map>
</class>

<class name="Child">
    <id name="id" column="child_id"/>
    ....
    <many-to-one name="parent" 
        class="Parent" 
        column="parent_id"
        insert="false"
        update="false"
        not-null="true"/>
</class>

Note that in this mapping, the collection-valued end of the association is responsible for updates to the foreign key.

This section covers collection examples.

The following class has a collection of Child instances:

package eg;
import java.util.Set;

public class Parent {
    private long id;
    private Set children;

    public long getId() { return id; }
    private void setId(long id) { this.id=id; }

    private Set getChildren() { return children; }
    private void setChildren(Set children) { this.children=children; }

    ....
    ....
}

If each child has, at most, one parent, the most natural mapping is a one-to-many association:

<hibernate-mapping>

    <class name="Parent">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <set name="children">
            <key column="parent_id"/>
            <one-to-many class="Child"/>
        </set>
    </class>

    <class name="Child">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <property name="name"/>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

在以下的表定义中反应了这个映射关系:

create table parent ( id bigint not null primary key )
create table child ( id bigint not null primary key, name varchar(255), parent_id bigint )
alter table child add constraint childfk0 (parent_id) references parent

如果父亲是必须的, 那么就可以使用双向one-to-many的关联了:

<hibernate-mapping>

    <class name="Parent">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <set name="children" inverse="true">
            <key column="parent_id"/>
            <one-to-many class="Child"/>
        </set>
    </class>

    <class name="Child">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <property name="name"/>
        <many-to-one name="parent" class="Parent" column="parent_id" not-null="true"/>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

请注意NOT NULL的约束:

create table parent ( id bigint not null primary key )
create table child ( id bigint not null
                     primary key,
                     name varchar(255),
                     parent_id bigint not null )
alter table child add constraint childfk0 (parent_id) references parent

Alternatively, if this association must be unidirectional you can declare the NOT NULL constraint on the <key> mapping:

<hibernate-mapping>

    <class name="Parent">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <set name="children">
            <key column="parent_id" not-null="true"/>
            <one-to-many class="Child"/>
        </set>
    </class>

    <class name="Child">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <property name="name"/>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

On the other hand, if a child has multiple parents, a many-to-many association is appropriate:

<hibernate-mapping>

    <class name="Parent">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <set name="children" table="childset">
            <key column="parent_id"/>
            <many-to-many class="Child" column="child_id"/>
        </set>
    </class>

    <class name="Child">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence"/>
        </id>
        <property name="name"/>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

表定义:

create table parent ( id bigint not null primary key )
create table child ( id bigint not null primary key, name varchar(255) )
create table childset ( parent_id bigint not null,
                        child_id bigint not null,
                        primary key ( parent_id, child_id ) )
alter table childset add constraint childsetfk0 (parent_id) references parent
alter table childset add constraint childsetfk1 (child_id) references child

For more examples and a complete explanation of a parent/child relationship mapping, see 第 21 章 示例:父子关系(Parent Child Relationships) for more information.

Even more complex association mappings are covered in the next chapter.

A bidirectional many-to-one association is the most common kind of association. The following example illustrates the standard parent/child relationship.

<class name="Person">
    <id name="id" column="personId">
        <generator class="native"/>
    </id>
    <many-to-one name="address" 
        column="addressId"
        not-null="true"/>
</class>

<class name="Address">
    <id name="id" column="addressId">
        <generator class="native"/>
    </id>
    <set name="people" inverse="true">
        <key column="addressId"/>
        <one-to-many class="Person"/>
    </set>
</class>
create table Person ( personId bigint not null primary key, addressId bigint not null )
create table Address ( addressId bigint not null primary key )
        

If you use a List, or other indexed collection, set the key column of the foreign key to not null. Hibernate will manage the association from the collections side to maintain the index of each element, making the other side virtually inverse by setting update="false" and insert="false":

<class name="Person">
   <id name="id"/>
   ...
   <many-to-one name="address"
      column="addressId"
      not-null="true"
      insert="false"
      update="false"/>
</class>

<class name="Address">
   <id name="id"/>
   ...
   <list name="people">
      <key column="addressId" not-null="true"/>
      <list-index column="peopleIdx"/>
      <one-to-many class="Person"/>
   </list>
</class>

If the underlying foreign key column is NOT NULL, it is important that you define not-null="true" on the <key> element of the collection mapping. Do not only declare not-null="true" on a possible nested <column> element, but on the <key> element.

More complex association joins are extremely rare. Hibernate handles more complex situations by using SQL fragments embedded in the mapping document. For example, if a table with historical account information data defines accountNumber, effectiveEndDate and effectiveStartDatecolumns, it would be mapped as follows:

<properties name="currentAccountKey">
    <property name="accountNumber" type="string" not-null="true"/>
    <property name="currentAccount" type="boolean">
        <formula>case when effectiveEndDate is null then 1 else 0 end</formula>
    </property>
</properties>
<property name="effectiveEndDate" type="date"/>
<property name="effectiveStateDate" type="date" not-null="true"/>

You can then map an association to the current instance, the one with null effectiveEndDate, by using:

<many-to-one name="currentAccountInfo" 
        property-ref="currentAccountKey"
        class="AccountInfo">
    <column name="accountNumber"/>
    <formula>'1'</formula>
</many-to-one>

In a more complex example, imagine that the association between Employee and Organization is maintained in an Employment table full of historical employment data. An association to the employee's most recent employer, the one with the most recent startDate, could be mapped in the following way:

<join>
    <key column="employeeId"/>
    <subselect>
        select employeeId, orgId 
        from Employments 
        group by orgId 
        having startDate = max(startDate)
    </subselect>
    <many-to-one name="mostRecentEmployer" 
            class="Organization" 
            column="orgId"/>
</join>

This functionality allows a degree of creativity and flexibility, but it is more practical to handle these kinds of cases using HQL or a criteria query.

The notion of a component is re-used in several different contexts and purposes throughout Hibernate.

A component is a contained object that is persisted as a value type and not an entity reference. The term "component" refers to the object-oriented notion of composition and not to architecture-level components. For example, you can model a person like this:

public class Person {
    private java.util.Date birthday;
    private Name name;
    private String key;
    public String getKey() {
        return key;
    }
    private void setKey(String key) {
        this.key=key;
    }
    public java.util.Date getBirthday() {
        return birthday;
    }
    public void setBirthday(java.util.Date birthday) {
        this.birthday = birthday;
    }
    public Name getName() {
        return name;
    }
    public void setName(Name name) {
        this.name = name;
    }
    ......
    ......
}
public class Name {
    char initial;
    String first;
    String last;
    public String getFirst() {
        return first;
    }
    void setFirst(String first) {
        this.first = first;
    }
    public String getLast() {
        return last;
    }
    void setLast(String last) {
        this.last = last;
    }
    public char getInitial() {
        return initial;
    }
    void setInitial(char initial) {
        this.initial = initial;
    }
}

Now Name can be persisted as a component of Person. Name defines getter and setter methods for its persistent properties, but it does not need to declare any interfaces or identifier properties.

Our Hibernate mapping would look like this:

<class name="eg.Person" table="person">
    <id name="Key" column="pid" type="string">
        <generator class="uuid"/>
    </id>
    <property name="birthday" type="date"/>
    <component name="Name" class="eg.Name"> <!-- class attribute optional -->
        <property name="initial"/>
        <property name="first"/>
        <property name="last"/>
    </component>
</class>

人员(Person)表中将包括pid, birthday, initial, firstlast等字段。

Like value types, components do not support shared references. In other words, two persons could have the same name, but the two person objects would contain two independent name objects that were only "the same" by value. The null value semantics of a component are ad hoc. When reloading the containing object, Hibernate will assume that if all component columns are null, then the entire component is null. This is suitable for most purposes.

The properties of a component can be of any Hibernate type (collections, many-to-one associations, other components, etc). Nested components should not be considered an exotic usage. Hibernate is intended to support a fine-grained object model.

<component> 元素还允许有 <parent>子元素,用来表明component类中的一个属性是指向包含它的实体的引用。

<class name="eg.Person" table="person">
    <id name="Key" column="pid" type="string">
        <generator class="uuid"/>
    </id>
    <property name="birthday" type="date"/>
    <component name="Name" class="eg.Name" unique="true">
        <parent name="namedPerson"/> <!-- reference back to the Person -->
        <property name="initial"/>
        <property name="first"/>
        <property name="last"/>
    </component>
</class>

Collections of components are supported (e.g. an array of type Name). Declare your component collection by replacing the <element> tag with a <composite-element> tag:

<set name="someNames" table="some_names" lazy="true">
    <key column="id"/>
    <composite-element class="eg.Name"> <!-- class attribute required -->
        <property name="initial"/>
        <property name="first"/>
        <property name="last"/>
    </composite-element>
</set>

Composite elements can contain components but not collections. If your composite element contains components, use the <nested-composite-element> tag. This case is a collection of components which themselves have components. You may want to consider if a one-to-many association is more appropriate. Remodel the composite element as an entity, but be aware that even though the Java model is the same, the relational model and persistence semantics are still slightly different.

A composite element mapping does not support null-able properties if you are using a <set>. There is no separate primary key column in the composite element table. Hibernate uses each column's value to identify a record when deleting objects, which is not possible with null values. You have to either use only not-null properties in a composite-element or choose a <list>, <map>, <bag> or <idbag>.

A special case of a composite element is a composite element with a nested <many-to-one> element. This mapping allows you to map extra columns of a many-to-many association table to the composite element class. The following is a many-to-many association from Order to Item, where purchaseDate, price and quantity are properties of the association:

<class name="eg.Order" .... >
    ....
    <set name="purchasedItems" table="purchase_items" lazy="true">
        <key column="order_id">
        <composite-element class="eg.Purchase">
            <property name="purchaseDate"/>
            <property name="price"/>
            <property name="quantity"/>
            <many-to-one name="item" class="eg.Item"/> <!-- class attribute is optional -->
        </composite-element>
    </set>
</class>

There cannot be a reference to the purchase on the other side for bidirectional association navigation. Components are value types and do not allow shared references. A single Purchase can be in the set of an Order, but it cannot be referenced by the Item at the same time.

其实组合元素的这个用法可以扩展到三重或多重关联:

<class name="eg.Order" .... >
    ....
    <set name="purchasedItems" table="purchase_items" lazy="true">
        <key column="order_id">
        <composite-element class="eg.OrderLine">
            <many-to-one name="purchaseDetails class="eg.Purchase"/>
            <many-to-one name="item" class="eg.Item"/>
        </composite-element>
    </set>
</class>

Composite elements can appear in queries using the same syntax as associations to other entities.

You can use a component as an identifier of an entity class. Your component class must satisfy certain requirements:

You cannot use an IdentifierGenerator to generate composite keys. Instead the application must assign its own identifiers.

Use the <composite-id> tag, with nested <key-property> elements, in place of the usual <id> declaration. For example, the OrderLine class has a primary key that depends upon the (composite) primary key of Order.

<class name="OrderLine">
    
    <composite-id name="id" class="OrderLineId">
        <key-property name="lineId"/>
        <key-property name="orderId"/>
        <key-property name="customerId"/>
    </composite-id>
    
    <property name="name"/>
    
    <many-to-one name="order" class="Order"
            insert="false" update="false">
        <column name="orderId"/>
        <column name="customerId"/>
    </many-to-one>
    ....
    
</class>

Any foreign keys referencing the OrderLine table are now composite. Declare this in your mappings for other classes. An association to OrderLine is mapped like this:

<many-to-one name="orderLine" class="OrderLine">
<!-- the "class" attribute is optional, as usual -->
    <column name="lineId"/>
    <column name="orderId"/>
    <column name="customerId"/>
</many-to-one>

指向OrderLine多对多关联也使用联合外键:

<set name="undeliveredOrderLines">
    <key column name="warehouseId"/>
    <many-to-many class="OrderLine">
        <column name="lineId"/>
        <column name="orderId"/>
        <column name="customerId"/>
    </many-to-many>
</set>

Order中,OrderLine的集合则是这样:

<set name="orderLines" inverse="true">
    <key>
        <column name="orderId"/>
        <column name="customerId"/>
    </key>
    <one-to-many class="OrderLine"/>
</set>

The <one-to-many> element declares no columns.

假若OrderLine本身拥有一个集合,它也具有组合外键。

<class name="OrderLine">
    ....
    ....
    <list name="deliveryAttempts">
        <key>   <!-- a collection inherits the composite key type -->
            <column name="lineId"/>
            <column name="orderId"/>
            <column name="customerId"/>
        </key>
        <list-index column="attemptId" base="1"/>
        <composite-element class="DeliveryAttempt">
            ...
        </composite-element>
    </set>
</class>

Hibernate支持三种基本的继承映射策略:

此外,Hibernate还支持第四种稍有不同的多态映射策略:

It is possible to use different mapping strategies for different branches of the same inheritance hierarchy. You can then make use of implicit polymorphism to achieve polymorphism across the whole hierarchy. However, Hibernate does not support mixing <subclass>, <joined-subclass> and <union-subclass> mappings under the same root <class> element. It is possible to mix together the table per hierarchy and table per subclass strategies under the the same <class> element, by combining the <subclass> and <join> elements (see below for an example).

It is possible to define subclass, union-subclass, and joined-subclass mappings in separate mapping documents directly beneath hibernate-mapping. This allows you to extend a class hierarchy by adding a new mapping file. You must specify an extends attribute in the subclass mapping, naming a previously mapped superclass. Previously this feature made the ordering of the mapping documents important. Since Hibernate3, the ordering of mapping files is irrelevant when using the extends keyword. The ordering inside a single mapping file still needs to be defined as superclasses before subclasses.

 <hibernate-mapping>
     <subclass name="DomesticCat" extends="Cat" discriminator-value="D">
          <property name="name" type="string"/>
     </subclass>
 </hibernate-mapping>

另一种可供选择的方法是采用隐式多态:

<class name="CreditCardPayment" table="CREDIT_PAYMENT">
    <id name="id" type="long" column="CREDIT_PAYMENT_ID">
        <generator class="native"/>
    </id>
    <property name="amount" column="CREDIT_AMOUNT"/>
    ...
</class>

<class name="CashPayment" table="CASH_PAYMENT">
    <id name="id" type="long" column="CASH_PAYMENT_ID">
        <generator class="native"/>
    </id>
    <property name="amount" column="CASH_AMOUNT"/>
    ...
</class>

<class name="ChequePayment" table="CHEQUE_PAYMENT">
    <id name="id" type="long" column="CHEQUE_PAYMENT_ID">
        <generator class="native"/>
    </id>
    <property name="amount" column="CHEQUE_AMOUNT"/>
    ...
</class>

Notice that the Payment interface is not mentioned explicitly. Also notice that properties of Payment are mapped in each of the subclasses. If you want to avoid duplication, consider using XML entities (for example, [ <!ENTITY allproperties SYSTEM "allproperties.xml"> ] in the DOCTYPE declaration and &allproperties; in the mapping).

这种方法的缺陷在于,在Hibernate执行多态查询时(polymorphic queries)无法生成带 UNION的SQL语句。

对于这种映射策略而言,通常用<any>来实现到 Payment的多态关联映射。

<any name="payment" meta-type="string" id-type="long">
    <meta-value value="CREDIT" class="CreditCardPayment"/>
    <meta-value value="CASH" class="CashPayment"/>
    <meta-value value="CHEQUE" class="ChequePayment"/>
    <column name="PAYMENT_CLASS"/>
    <column name="PAYMENT_ID"/>
</any>

Hibernate is a full object/relational mapping solution that not only shields the developer from the details of the underlying database management system, but also offers state management of objects. This is, contrary to the management of SQL statements in common JDBC/SQL persistence layers, a natural object-oriented view of persistence in Java applications.

换句话说,使用Hibernate的开发者应该总是关注对象的状态(state),不必考虑SQL语句的执行。 这部分细节已经由Hibernate掌管妥当,只有开发者在进行系统性能调优的时候才需要进行了解。

Hibernate定义并支持下列对象状态(state):

We will now discuss the states and state transitions (and the Hibernate methods that trigger a transition) in more detail.

Hibernate认为持久化类(persistent class)新实例化的对象是瞬时(Transient)的。 我们可通过将瞬时(Transient)对象与session关联而把它变为持久(Persistent)的。

DomesticCat fritz = new DomesticCat();
fritz.setColor(Color.GINGER);
fritz.setSex('M');
fritz.setName("Fritz");
Long generatedId = (Long) sess.save(fritz);

If Cat has a generated identifier, the identifier is generated and assigned to the cat when save() is called. If Cat has an assigned identifier, or a composite key, the identifier should be assigned to the cat instance before calling save(). You can also use persist() instead of save(), with the semantics defined in the EJB3 early draft.

Alternatively, you can assign the identifier using an overloaded version of save().

DomesticCat pk = new DomesticCat();
pk.setColor(Color.TABBY);
pk.setSex('F');
pk.setName("PK");
pk.setKittens( new HashSet() );
pk.addKitten(fritz);
sess.save( pk, new Long(1234) );

If the object you make persistent has associated objects (e.g. the kittens collection in the previous example), these objects can be made persistent in any order you like unless you have a NOT NULL constraint upon a foreign key column. There is never a risk of violating foreign key constraints. However, you might violate a NOT NULL constraint if you save() the objects in the wrong order.

Usually you do not bother with this detail, as you will normally use Hibernate's transitive persistence feature to save the associated objects automatically. Then, even NOT NULL constraint violations do not occur - Hibernate will take care of everything. Transitive persistence is discussed later in this chapter.

The load() methods of Session provide a way of retrieving a persistent instance if you know its identifier. load() takes a class object and loads the state into a newly instantiated instance of that class in a persistent state.

Cat fritz = (Cat) sess.load(Cat.class, generatedId);
// you need to wrap primitive identifiers
long id = 1234;
DomesticCat pk = (DomesticCat) sess.load( DomesticCat.class, new Long(id) );

此外, 你可以把数据(state)加载到指定的对象实例上(覆盖掉该实例原来的数据)。

Cat cat = new DomesticCat();
// load pk's state into cat
sess.load( cat, new Long(pkId) );
Set kittens = cat.getKittens();

Be aware that load() will throw an unrecoverable exception if there is no matching database row. If the class is mapped with a proxy, load() just returns an uninitialized proxy and does not actually hit the database until you invoke a method of the proxy. This is useful if you wish to create an association to an object without actually loading it from the database. It also allows multiple instances to be loaded as a batch if batch-size is defined for the class mapping.

If you are not certain that a matching row exists, you should use the get() method which hits the database immediately and returns null if there is no matching row.

Cat cat = (Cat) sess.get(Cat.class, id);
if (cat==null) {
    cat = new Cat();
    sess.save(cat, id);
}
return cat;

You can even load an object using an SQL SELECT ... FOR UPDATE, using a LockMode. See the API documentation for more information.

Cat cat = (Cat) sess.get(Cat.class, id, LockMode.UPGRADE);

Any associated instances or contained collections will not be selected FOR UPDATE, unless you decide to specify lock or all as a cascade style for the association.

任何时候都可以使用refresh()方法强迫装载对象和它的集合。如果你使用数据库触发器功能来处理对象的某些属性,这个方法就很有用了。

sess.save(cat);
sess.flush(); //force the SQL INSERT
sess.refresh(cat); //re-read the state (after the trigger executes)

How much does Hibernate load from the database and how many SQL SELECTs will it use? This depends on the fetching strategy. This is explained in 第 19.1 节 “抓取策略(Fetching strategies)”.

If you do not know the identifiers of the objects you are looking for, you need a query. Hibernate supports an easy-to-use but powerful object oriented query language (HQL). For programmatic query creation, Hibernate supports a sophisticated Criteria and Example query feature (QBC and QBE). You can also express your query in the native SQL of your database, with optional support from Hibernate for result set conversion into objects.

HQL和原生SQL(native SQL)查询要通过为org.hibernate.Query的实例来表达。 这个接口提供了参数绑定、结果集处理以及运行实际查询的方法。 你总是可以通过当前Session获取一个Query对象:

List cats = session.createQuery(
    "from Cat as cat where cat.birthdate < ?")
    .setDate(0, date)
    .list();

List mothers = session.createQuery(
    "select mother from Cat as cat join cat.mother as mother where cat.name = ?")
    .setString(0, name)
    .list();

List kittens = session.createQuery(
    "from Cat as cat where cat.mother = ?")
    .setEntity(0, pk)
    .list();

Cat mother = (Cat) session.createQuery(
    "select cat.mother from Cat as cat where cat = ?")
    .setEntity(0, izi)
    .uniqueResult();]]

Query mothersWithKittens = (Cat) session.createQuery(
    "select mother from Cat as mother left join fetch mother.kittens");
Set uniqueMothers = new HashSet(mothersWithKittens.list());

A query is usually executed by invoking list(). The result of the query will be loaded completely into a collection in memory. Entity instances retrieved by a query are in a persistent state. The uniqueResult() method offers a shortcut if you know your query will only return a single object. Queries that make use of eager fetching of collections usually return duplicates of the root objects, but with their collections initialized. You can filter these duplicates through a Set.

Transactional persistent instances (i.e. objects loaded, saved, created or queried by the Session) can be manipulated by the application, and any changes to persistent state will be persisted when the Session is flushed. This is discussed later in this chapter. There is no need to call a particular method (like update(), which has a different purpose) to make your modifications persistent. The most straightforward way to update the state of an object is to load() it and then manipulate it directly while the Session is open:

DomesticCat cat = (DomesticCat) sess.load( Cat.class, new Long(69) );
cat.setName("PK");
sess.flush();  // changes to cat are automatically detected and persisted

Sometimes this programming model is inefficient, as it requires in the same session both an SQL SELECT to load an object and an SQL UPDATE to persist its updated state. Hibernate offers an alternate approach by using detached instances.

很多程序需要在某个事务中获取对象,然后将对象发送到界面层去操作,最后在一个新的事务保存所做的修改。 在高并发访问的环境中使用这种方式,通常使用附带版本信息的数据来保证这些“长“工作单元之间的隔离。

Hibernate通过提供Session.update()Session.merge() 重新关联脱管实例的办法来支持这种模型。

// in the first session
Cat cat = (Cat) firstSession.load(Cat.class, catId);
Cat potentialMate = new Cat();
firstSession.save(potentialMate);

// in a higher layer of the application
cat.setMate(potentialMate);

// later, in a new session
secondSession.update(cat);  // update cat
secondSession.update(mate); // update mate

如果具有catId持久化标识的Cat之前已经被另一Session(secondSession)装载了, 应用程序进行重关联操作(reattach)的时候会抛出一个异常。

Use update() if you are certain that the session does not contain an already persistent instance with the same identifier. Use merge() if you want to merge your modifications at any time without consideration of the state of the session. In other words, update() is usually the first method you would call in a fresh session, ensuring that the reattachment of your detached instances is the first operation that is executed.

The application should individually update() detached instances that are reachable from the given detached instance only if it wants their state to be updated. This can be automated using transitive persistence. See 第 10.11 节 “传播性持久化(transitive persistence)” for more information.

The lock() method also allows an application to reassociate an object with a new session. However, the detached instance has to be unmodified.

//just reassociate:
sess.lock(fritz, LockMode.NONE);
//do a version check, then reassociate:
sess.lock(izi, LockMode.READ);
//do a version check, using SELECT ... FOR UPDATE, then reassociate:
sess.lock(pk, LockMode.UPGRADE);

Note that lock() can be used with various LockModes. See the API documentation and the chapter on transaction handling for more information. Reattachment is not the only usecase for lock().

其他用于长时间工作单元的模型会在第 11.3 节 “乐观并发控制(Optimistic concurrency control)”中讨论。

Hibernate的用户曾要求一个既可自动分配新持久化标识(identifier)保存瞬时(transient)对象,又可更新/重新关联脱管(detached)实例的通用方法。 saveOrUpdate()方法实现了这个功能。

// in the first session
Cat cat = (Cat) firstSession.load(Cat.class, catID);

// in a higher tier of the application
Cat mate = new Cat();
cat.setMate(mate);

// later, in a new session
secondSession.saveOrUpdate(cat);   // update existing state (cat has a non-null id)
secondSession.saveOrUpdate(mate);  // save the new instance (mate has a null id)

saveOrUpdate()用途和语义可能会使新用户感到迷惑。 首先,只要你没有尝试在某个session中使用来自另一session的实例,你就应该不需要使用update()saveOrUpdate(),或merge()。有些程序从来不用这些方法。

通常下面的场景会使用update()saveOrUpdate()

saveOrUpdate()做下面的事:

merge()可非常不同:

Sometimes the Session will execute the SQL statements needed to synchronize the JDBC connection's state with the state of objects held in memory. This process, called flush, occurs by default at the following points:

The SQL statements are issued in the following order:

An exception is that objects using native ID generation are inserted when they are saved.

Except when you explicitly flush(), there are absolutely no guarantees about when the Session executes the JDBC calls, only the order in which they are executed. However, Hibernate does guarantee that the Query.list(..) will never return stale or incorrect data.

It is possible to change the default behavior so that flush occurs less frequently. The FlushMode class defines three different modes: only flush at commit time when the Hibernate Transaction API is used, flush automatically using the explained routine, or never flush unless flush() is called explicitly. The last mode is useful for long running units of work, where a Session is kept open and disconnected for a long time (see 第 11.3.2 节 “扩展周期的session和自动版本化”).

sess = sf.openSession();
Transaction tx = sess.beginTransaction();
sess.setFlushMode(FlushMode.COMMIT); // allow queries to return stale state

Cat izi = (Cat) sess.load(Cat.class, id);
izi.setName(iznizi);

// might return stale data
sess.find("from Cat as cat left outer join cat.kittens kitten");

// change to izi is not flushed!
...
tx.commit(); // flush occurs
sess.close();

刷出(flush)期间,可能会抛出异常。(例如一个DML操作违反了约束) 异常处理涉及到对Hibernate事务性行为的理解,因此我们将在第 11 章 Transactions and Concurrency中讨论。

对每一个对象都要执行保存,删除或重关联操作让人感觉有点麻烦,尤其是在处理许多彼此关联的对象的时候。 一个常见的例子是父子关系。考虑下面的例子:

If the children in a parent/child relationship would be value typed (e.g. a collection of addresses or strings), their life cycle would depend on the parent and no further action would be required for convenient "cascading" of state changes. When the parent is saved, the value-typed child objects are saved and when the parent is deleted, the children will be deleted, etc. This works for operations such as the removal of a child from the collection. Since value-typed objects cannot have shared references, Hibernate will detect this and delete the child from the database.

Now consider the same scenario with parent and child objects being entities, not value-types (e.g. categories and items, or parent and child cats). Entities have their own life cycle and support shared references. Removing an entity from the collection does not mean it can be deleted), and there is by default no cascading of state from one entity to any other associated entities. Hibernate does not implement persistence by reachability by default.

每个Hibernate session的基本操作 - 包括 persist(), merge(), saveOrUpdate(), delete(), lock(), refresh(), evict(), replicate() - 都有对应的级联风格(cascade style)。 这些级联风格(cascade style)风格分别命名为 create, merge, save-update, delete, lock, refresh, evict, replicate。 如果你希望一个操作被顺着关联关系级联传播,你必须在映射文件中指出这一点。例如:

<one-to-one name="person" cascade="persist"/>

级联风格(cascade style)是可组合的:

<one-to-one name="person" cascade="persist,delete,lock"/>

You can even use cascade="all" to specify that all operations should be cascaded along the association. The default cascade="none" specifies that no operations are to be cascaded.

注意有一个特殊的级联风格(cascade style) delete-orphan,只应用于one-to-many关联,表明delete()操作 应该被应用于所有从关联中删除的对象。

建议:

可以使用cascade="all"将一个关联关系(无论是对值对象的关联,或者对一个集合的关联)标记为父/子关系的关联。 这样对父对象进行save/update/delete操作就会导致子对象也进行save/update/delete操作。

Furthermore, a mere reference to a child from a persistent parent will result in save/update of the child. This metaphor is incomplete, however. A child which becomes unreferenced by its parent is not automatically deleted, except in the case of a <one-to-many> association mapped with cascade="delete-orphan". The precise semantics of cascading operations for a parent/child relationship are as follows:

Finally, note that cascading of operations can be applied to an object graph at call time or at flush time. All operations, if enabled, are cascaded to associated entities reachable when the operation is executed. However, save-update and delete-orphan are transitive for all associated entities reachable during flush of the Session.

The most important point about Hibernate and concurrency control is that it is easy to understand. Hibernate directly uses JDBC connections and JTA resources without adding any additional locking behavior. It is recommended that you spend some time with the JDBC, ANSI, and transaction isolation specification of your database management system.

Hibernate does not lock objects in memory. Your application can expect the behavior as defined by the isolation level of your database transactions. Through Session, which is also a transaction-scoped cache, Hibernate provides repeatable reads for lookup by identifier and entity queries and not reporting queries that return scalar values.

In addition to versioning for automatic optimistic concurrency control, Hibernate also offers, using the SELECT FOR UPDATE syntax, a (minor) API for pessimistic locking of rows. Optimistic concurrency control and this API are discussed later in this chapter.

The discussion of concurrency control in Hibernate begins with the granularity of Configuration, SessionFactory, and Session, as well as database transactions and long conversations.

A SessionFactory is an expensive-to-create, threadsafe object, intended to be shared by all application threads. It is created once, usually on application startup, from a Configuration instance.

A Session is an inexpensive, non-threadsafe object that should be used once and then discarded for: a single request, a conversation or a single unit of work. A Session will not obtain a JDBC Connection, or a Datasource, unless it is needed. It will not consume any resources until used.

In order to reduce lock contention in the database, a database transaction has to be as short as possible. Long database transactions will prevent your application from scaling to a highly concurrent load. It is not recommended that you hold a database transaction open during user think time until the unit of work is complete.

What is the scope of a unit of work? Can a single Hibernate Session span several database transactions, or is this a one-to-one relationship of scopes? When should you open and close a Session and how do you demarcate the database transaction boundaries? These questions are addressed in the following sections.

First, let's define a unit of work. A unit of work is a design pattern described by Martin Fowler as “ [maintaining] a list of objects affected by a business transaction and coordinates the writing out of changes and the resolution of concurrency problems. ”[PoEAA] In other words, its a series of operations we wish to carry out against the database together. Basically, it is a transaction, though fulfilling a unit of work will often span multiple physical database transactions (see 第 11.1.2 节 “长对话”). So really we are talking about a more abstract notion of a transaction. The term "business transaction" is also sometimes used in lieu of unit of work.

Do not use the session-per-operation antipattern: do not open and close a Session for every simple database call in a single thread. The same is true for database transactions. Database calls in an application are made using a planned sequence; they are grouped into atomic units of work. This also means that auto-commit after every single SQL statement is useless in an application as this mode is intended for ad-hoc SQL console work. Hibernate disables, or expects the application server to disable, auto-commit mode immediately. Database transactions are never optional. All communication with a database has to occur inside a transaction. Auto-commit behavior for reading data should be avoided, as many small transactions are unlikely to perform better than one clearly defined unit of work. The latter is also more maintainable and extensible.

The most common pattern in a multi-user client/server application is session-per-request. In this model, a request from the client is sent to the server, where the Hibernate persistence layer runs. A new Hibernate Session is opened, and all database operations are executed in this unit of work. On completion of the work, and once the response for the client has been prepared, the session is flushed and closed. Use a single database transaction to serve the clients request, starting and committing it when you open and close the Session. The relationship between the two is one-to-one and this model is a perfect fit for many applications.

The challenge lies in the implementation. Hibernate provides built-in management of the "current session" to simplify this pattern. Start a transaction when a server request has to be processed, and end the transaction before the response is sent to the client. Common solutions are ServletFilter, AOP interceptor with a pointcut on the service methods, or a proxy/interception container. An EJB container is a standardized way to implement cross-cutting aspects such as transaction demarcation on EJB session beans, declaratively with CMT. If you use programmatic transaction demarcation, for ease of use and code portability use the Hibernate Transaction API shown later in this chapter.

Your application code can access a "current session" to process the request by calling sessionFactory.getCurrentSession(). You will always get a Session scoped to the current database transaction. This has to be configured for either resource-local or JTA environments, see 第 2.5 节 “Contextual sessions”.

You can extend the scope of a Session and database transaction until the "view has been rendered". This is especially useful in servlet applications that utilize a separate rendering phase after the request has been processed. Extending the database transaction until view rendering, is achieved by implementing your own interceptor. However, this will be difficult if you rely on EJBs with container-managed transactions. A transaction will be completed when an EJB method returns, before rendering of any view can start. See the Hibernate website and forum for tips and examples relating to this Open Session in View pattern.

The session-per-request pattern is not the only way of designing units of work. Many business processes require a whole series of interactions with the user that are interleaved with database accesses. In web and enterprise applications, it is not acceptable for a database transaction to span a user interaction. Consider the following example:

From the point of view of the user, we call this unit of work a long-running conversation or application transaction. There are many ways to implement this in your application.

A first naive implementation might keep the Session and database transaction open during user think time, with locks held in the database to prevent concurrent modification and to guarantee isolation and atomicity. This is an anti-pattern, since lock contention would not allow the application to scale with the number of concurrent users.

You have to use several database transactions to implement the conversation. In this case, maintaining isolation of business processes becomes the partial responsibility of the application tier. A single conversation usually spans several database transactions. It will be atomic if only one of these database transactions (the last one) stores the updated data. All others simply read data (for example, in a wizard-style dialog spanning several request/response cycles). This is easier to implement than it might sound, especially if you utilize some of Hibernate's features:

Both session-per-request-with-detached-objects and session-per-conversation have advantages and disadvantages. These disadvantages are discussed later in this chapter in the context of optimistic concurrency control.

An application can concurrently access the same persistent state in two different Sessions. However, an instance of a persistent class is never shared between two Session instances. It is for this reason that there are two different notions of identity:

For objects attached to a particular Session (i.e., in the scope of a Session), the two notions are equivalent and JVM identity for database identity is guaranteed by Hibernate. While the application might concurrently access the "same" (persistent identity) business object in two different sessions, the two instances will actually be "different" (JVM identity). Conflicts are resolved using an optimistic approach and automatic versioning at flush/commit time.

This approach leaves Hibernate and the database to worry about concurrency. It also provides the best scalability, since guaranteeing identity in single-threaded units of work means that it does not need expensive locking or other means of synchronization. The application does not need to synchronize on any business object, as long as it maintains a single thread per Session. Within a Session the application can safely use == to compare objects.

However, an application that uses == outside of a Session might produce unexpected results. This might occur even in some unexpected places. For example, if you put two detached instances into the same Set, both might have the same database identity (i.e., they represent the same row). JVM identity, however, is by definition not guaranteed for instances in a detached state. The developer has to override the equals() and hashCode() methods in persistent classes and implement their own notion of object equality. There is one caveat: never use the database identifier to implement equality. Use a business key that is a combination of unique, usually immutable, attributes. The database identifier will change if a transient object is made persistent. If the transient instance (usually together with detached instances) is held in a Set, changing the hashcode breaks the contract of the Set. Attributes for business keys do not have to be as stable as database primary keys; you only have to guarantee stability as long as the objects are in the same Set. See the Hibernate website for a more thorough discussion of this issue. Please note that this is not a Hibernate issue, but simply how Java object identity and equality has to be implemented.

Do not use the anti-patterns session-per-user-session or session-per-application (there are, however, rare exceptions to this rule). Some of the following issues might also arise within the recommended patterns, so ensure that you understand the implications before making a design decision:

Database, or system, transaction boundaries are always necessary. No communication with the database can occur outside of a database transaction (this seems to confuse many developers who are used to the auto-commit mode). Always use clear transaction boundaries, even for read-only operations. Depending on your isolation level and database capabilities this might not be required, but there is no downside if you always demarcate transactions explicitly. Certainly, a single database transaction is going to perform better than many small transactions, even for reading data.

A Hibernate application can run in non-managed (i.e., standalone, simple Web- or Swing applications) and managed J2EE environments. In a non-managed environment, Hibernate is usually responsible for its own database connection pool. The application developer has to manually set transaction boundaries (begin, commit, or rollback database transactions) themselves. A managed environment usually provides container-managed transactions (CMT), with the transaction assembly defined declaratively (in deployment descriptors of EJB session beans, for example). Programmatic transaction demarcation is then no longer necessary.

However, it is often desirable to keep your persistence layer portable between non-managed resource-local environments, and systems that can rely on JTA but use BMT instead of CMT. In both cases use programmatic transaction demarcation. Hibernate offers a wrapper API called Transaction that translates into the native transaction system of your deployment environment. This API is actually optional, but we strongly encourage its use unless you are in a CMT session bean.

Ending a Session usually involves four distinct phases:

We discussed Flushing the session earlier, so we will now have a closer look at transaction demarcation and exception handling in both managed and non-managed environments.

If a Hibernate persistence layer runs in a non-managed environment, database connections are usually handled by simple (i.e., non-DataSource) connection pools from which Hibernate obtains connections as needed. The session/transaction handling idiom looks like this:

// Non-managed environment idiom
Session sess = factory.openSession();
Transaction tx = null;
try {
    tx = sess.beginTransaction();

    // do some work
    ...

    tx.commit();
}
catch (RuntimeException e) {
    if (tx != null) tx.rollback();
    throw e; // or display error message
}
finally {
    sess.close();
}

You do not have to flush() the Session explicitly: the call to commit() automatically triggers the synchronization depending on the FlushMode for the session. A call to close() marks the end of a session. The main implication of close() is that the JDBC connection will be relinquished by the session. This Java code is portable and runs in both non-managed and JTA environments.

As outlined earlier, a much more flexible solution is Hibernate's built-in "current session" context management:

// Non-managed environment idiom with getCurrentSession()
try {
    factory.getCurrentSession().beginTransaction();

    // do some work
    ...

    factory.getCurrentSession().getTransaction().commit();
}
catch (RuntimeException e) {
    factory.getCurrentSession().getTransaction().rollback();
    throw e; // or display error message
}

You will not see these code snippets in a regular application; fatal (system) exceptions should always be caught at the "top". In other words, the code that executes Hibernate calls in the persistence layer, and the code that handles RuntimeException (and usually can only clean up and exit), are in different layers. The current context management by Hibernate can significantly simplify this design by accessing a SessionFactory. Exception handling is discussed later in this chapter.

You should select org.hibernate.transaction.JDBCTransactionFactory, which is the default, and for the second example select "thread" as your hibernate.current_session_context_class.

If your persistence layer runs in an application server (for example, behind EJB session beans), every datasource connection obtained by Hibernate will automatically be part of the global JTA transaction. You can also install a standalone JTA implementation and use it without EJB. Hibernate offers two strategies for JTA integration.

If you use bean-managed transactions (BMT), Hibernate will tell the application server to start and end a BMT transaction if you use the Transaction API. The transaction management code is identical to the non-managed environment.

// BMT idiom
Session sess = factory.openSession();
Transaction tx = null;
try {
    tx = sess.beginTransaction();

    // do some work
    ...

    tx.commit();
}
catch (RuntimeException e) {
    if (tx != null) tx.rollback();
    throw e; // or display error message
}
finally {
    sess.close();
}

If you want to use a transaction-bound Session, that is, the getCurrentSession() functionality for easy context propagation, use the JTA UserTransaction API directly:

// BMT idiom with getCurrentSession()
try {
    UserTransaction tx = (UserTransaction)new InitialContext()
                            .lookup("java:comp/UserTransaction");

    tx.begin();

    // Do some work on Session bound to transaction
    factory.getCurrentSession().load(...);
    factory.getCurrentSession().persist(...);

    tx.commit();
}
catch (RuntimeException e) {
    tx.rollback();
    throw e; // or display error message
}

With CMT, transaction demarcation is completed in session bean deployment descriptors, not programmatically. The code is reduced to:

// CMT idiom
 Session sess = factory.getCurrentSession();

 // do some work
 ...

In a CMT/EJB, even rollback happens automatically. An unhandled RuntimeException thrown by a session bean method tells the container to set the global transaction to rollback. You do not need to use the Hibernate Transaction API at all with BMT or CMT, and you get automatic propagation of the "current" Session bound to the transaction.

When configuring Hibernate's transaction factory, choose org.hibernate.transaction.JTATransactionFactory if you use JTA directly (BMT), and org.hibernate.transaction.CMTTransactionFactory in a CMT session bean. Remember to also set hibernate.transaction.manager_lookup_class. Ensure that your hibernate.current_session_context_class is either unset (backwards compatibility), or is set to "jta".

The getCurrentSession() operation has one downside in a JTA environment. There is one caveat to the use of after_statement connection release mode, which is then used by default. Due to a limitation of the JTA spec, it is not possible for Hibernate to automatically clean up any unclosed ScrollableResults or Iterator instances returned by scroll() or iterate(). You must release the underlying database cursor by calling ScrollableResults.close() or Hibernate.close(Iterator) explicitly from a finally block. Most applications can easily avoid using scroll() or iterate() from the JTA or CMT code.)

If the Session throws an exception, including any SQLException, immediately rollback the database transaction, call Session.close() and discard the Session instance. Certain methods of Session will not leave the session in a consistent state. No exception thrown by Hibernate can be treated as recoverable. Ensure that the Session will be closed by calling close() in a finally block.

The HibernateException, which wraps most of the errors that can occur in a Hibernate persistence layer, is an unchecked exception. It was not in older versions of Hibernate. In our opinion, we should not force the application developer to catch an unrecoverable exception at a low layer. In most systems, unchecked and fatal exceptions are handled in one of the first frames of the method call stack (i.e., in higher layers) and either an error message is presented to the application user or some other appropriate action is taken. Note that Hibernate might also throw other unchecked exceptions that are not a HibernateException. These are not recoverable and appropriate action should be taken.

Hibernate wraps SQLExceptions thrown while interacting with the database in a JDBCException. In fact, Hibernate will attempt to convert the exception into a more meaningful subclass of JDBCException. The underlying SQLException is always available via JDBCException.getCause(). Hibernate converts the SQLException into an appropriate JDBCException subclass using the SQLExceptionConverter attached to the SessionFactory. By default, the SQLExceptionConverter is defined by the configured dialect. However, it is also possible to plug in a custom implementation. See the javadocs for the SQLExceptionConverterFactory class for details. The standard JDBCException subtypes are:

The only approach that is consistent with high concurrency and high scalability, is optimistic concurrency control with versioning. Version checking uses version numbers, or timestamps, to detect conflicting updates and to prevent lost updates. Hibernate provides three possible approaches to writing application code that uses optimistic concurrency. The use cases we discuss are in the context of long conversations, but version checking also has the benefit of preventing lost updates in single database transactions.

In an implementation without much help from Hibernate, each interaction with the database occurs in a new Session and the developer is responsible for reloading all persistent instances from the database before manipulating them. The application is forced to carry out its own version checking to ensure conversation transaction isolation. This approach is the least efficient in terms of database access. It is the approach most similar to entity EJBs.

// foo is an instance loaded by a previous Session
session = factory.openSession();
Transaction t = session.beginTransaction();

int oldVersion = foo.getVersion();
session.load( foo, foo.getKey() ); // load the current state
if ( oldVersion != foo.getVersion() ) throw new StaleObjectStateException();
foo.setProperty("bar");

t.commit();
session.close();

version 属性使用 <version>来映射,如果对象 是脏数据,在同步的时候,Hibernate会自动增加版本号。

If you are operating in a low-data-concurrency environment, and do not require version checking, you can use this approach and skip the version check. In this case, last commit wins is the default strategy for long conversations. Be aware that this might confuse the users of the application, as they might experience lost updates without error messages or a chance to merge conflicting changes.

Manual version checking is only feasible in trivial circumstances and not practical for most applications. Often not only single instances, but complete graphs of modified objects, have to be checked. Hibernate offers automatic version checking with either an extended Session or detached instances as the design paradigm.

A single Session instance and its persistent instances that are used for the whole conversation are known as session-per-conversation. Hibernate checks instance versions at flush time, throwing an exception if concurrent modification is detected. It is up to the developer to catch and handle this exception. Common options are the opportunity for the user to merge changes or to restart the business conversation with non-stale data.

The Session is disconnected from any underlying JDBC connection when waiting for user interaction. This approach is the most efficient in terms of database access. The application does not version check or reattach detached instances, nor does it have to reload instances in every database transaction.

// foo is an instance loaded earlier by the old session
Transaction t = session.beginTransaction(); // Obtain a new JDBC connection, start transaction

foo.setProperty("bar");

session.flush();    // Only for last transaction in conversation
t.commit();         // Also return JDBC connection
session.close();    // Only for last transaction in conversation

The foo object knows which Session it was loaded in. Beginning a new database transaction on an old session obtains a new connection and resumes the session. Committing a database transaction disconnects a session from the JDBC connection and returns the connection to the pool. After reconnection, to force a version check on data you are not updating, you can call Session.lock() with LockMode.READ on any objects that might have been updated by another transaction. You do not need to lock any data that you are updating. Usually you would set FlushMode.MANUAL on an extended Session, so that only the last database transaction cycle is allowed to actually persist all modifications made in this conversation. Only this last database transaction will include the flush() operation, and then close() the session to end the conversation.

This pattern is problematic if the Session is too big to be stored during user think time (for example, an HttpSession should be kept as small as possible). As the Session is also the first-level cache and contains all loaded objects, we can probably use this strategy only for a few request/response cycles. Use a Session only for a single conversation as it will soon have stale data.

Keep the disconnected Session close to the persistence layer. Use an EJB stateful session bean to hold the Session in a three-tier environment. Do not transfer it to the web layer, or even serialize it to a separate tier, to store it in the HttpSession.

The extended session pattern, or session-per-conversation, is more difficult to implement with automatic current session context management. You need to supply your own implementation of the CurrentSessionContext for this. See the Hibernate Wiki for examples.

You can disable Hibernate's automatic version increment for particular properties and collections by setting the optimistic-lock mapping attribute to false. Hibernate will then no longer increment versions if the property is dirty.

Legacy database schemas are often static and cannot be modified. Or, other applications might access the same database and will not know how to handle version numbers or even timestamps. In both cases, versioning cannot rely on a particular column in a table. To force a version check with a comparison of the state of all fields in a row but without a version or timestamp property mapping, turn on optimistic-lock="all" in the <class> mapping. This conceptually only works if Hibernate can compare the old and the new state (i.e., if you use a single long Session and not session-per-request-with-detached-objects).

Concurrent modification can be permitted in instances where the changes that have been made do not overlap. If you set optimistic-lock="dirty" when mapping the <class>, Hibernate will only compare dirty fields during flush.

In both cases, with dedicated version/timestamp columns or with a full/dirty field comparison, Hibernate uses a single UPDATE statement, with an appropriate WHERE clause, per entity to execute the version check and update the information. If you use transitive persistence to cascade reattachment to associated entities, Hibernate may execute unnecessary updates. This is usually not a problem, but on update triggers in the database might be executed even when no changes have been made to detached instances. You can customize this behavior by setting select-before-update="true" in the <class> mapping, forcing Hibernate to SELECT the instance to ensure that changes did occur before updating the row.

It is not intended that users spend much time worrying about locking strategies. It is usually enough to specify an isolation level for the JDBC connections and then simply let the database do all the work. However, advanced users may wish to obtain exclusive pessimistic locks or re-obtain locks at the start of a new transaction.

Hibernate will always use the locking mechanism of the database; it never lock objects in memory.

The LockMode class defines the different lock levels that can be acquired by Hibernate. A lock is obtained by the following mechanisms:

"显式的用户指定"可以通过以下几种方式之一来表示:

如果在UPGRADE或者UPGRADE_NOWAIT锁定模式下调 用Session.load(),并且要读取的对象尚未被session载入过,那么对象 通过SELECT ... FOR UPDATE这样的SQL语句被载入。如果为一个对象调用 load()方法时,该对象已经在另一个较少限制的锁定模式下被载入了,那 么Hibernate就对该对象调用lock() 方法。

Session.lock() performs a version number check if the specified lock mode is READ, UPGRADE or UPGRADE_NOWAIT. In the case of UPGRADE or UPGRADE_NOWAIT, SELECT ... FOR UPDATE is used.

If the requested lock mode is not supported by the database, Hibernate uses an appropriate alternate mode instead of throwing an exception. This ensures that applications are portable.

One of the legacies of Hibernate 2.x JDBC connection management meant that a Session would obtain a connection when it was first required and then maintain that connection until the session was closed. Hibernate 3.x introduced the notion of connection release modes that would instruct a session how to handle its JDBC connections. The following discussion is pertinent only to connections provided through a configured ConnectionProvider. User-supplied connections are outside the breadth of this discussion. The different release modes are identified by the enumerated values of org.hibernate.ConnectionReleaseMode:

The configuration parameter hibernate.connection.release_mode is used to specify which release mode to use. The possible values are as follows:

It is useful for the application to react to certain events that occur inside Hibernate. This allows for the implementation of generic functionality and the extension of Hibernate functionality.

The Interceptor interface provides callbacks from the session to the application, allowing the application to inspect and/or manipulate properties of a persistent object before it is saved, updated, deleted or loaded. One possible use for this is to track auditing information. For example, the following Interceptor automatically sets the createTimestamp when an Auditable is created and updates the lastUpdateTimestamp property when an Auditable is updated.

You can either implement Interceptor directly or extend EmptyInterceptor.

package org.hibernate.test;

import java.io.Serializable;
import java.util.Date;
import java.util.Iterator;

import org.hibernate.EmptyInterceptor;
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.type.Type;

public class AuditInterceptor extends EmptyInterceptor {

    private int updates;
    private int creates;
    private int loads;

    public void onDelete(Object entity,
                         Serializable id,
                         Object[] state,
                         String[] propertyNames,
                         Type[] types) {
        // do nothing
    }

    public boolean onFlushDirty(Object entity,
                                Serializable id,
                                Object[] currentState,
                                Object[] previousState,
                                String[] propertyNames,
                                Type[] types) {

        if ( entity instanceof Auditable ) {
            updates++;
            for ( int i=0; i < propertyNames.length; i++ ) {
                if ( "lastUpdateTimestamp".equals( propertyNames[i] ) ) {
                    currentState[i] = new Date();
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    public boolean onLoad(Object entity,
                          Serializable id,
                          Object[] state,
                          String[] propertyNames,
                          Type[] types) {
        if ( entity instanceof Auditable ) {
            loads++;
        }
        return false;
    }

    public boolean onSave(Object entity,
                          Serializable id,
                          Object[] state,
                          String[] propertyNames,
                          Type[] types) {

        if ( entity instanceof Auditable ) {
            creates++;
            for ( int i=0; i<propertyNames.length; i++ ) {
                if ( "createTimestamp".equals( propertyNames[i] ) ) {
                    state[i] = new Date();
                    return true;
                }
            }
        }
        return false;
    }

    public void afterTransactionCompletion(Transaction tx) {
        if ( tx.wasCommitted() ) {
            System.out.println("Creations: " + creates + ", Updates: " + updates, "Loads: " + loads);
        }
        updates=0;
        creates=0;
        loads=0;
    }

}

There are two kinds of inteceptors: Session-scoped and SessionFactory-scoped.

当使用某个重载的SessionFactory.openSession()使用Interceptor作为参数调用打开一个session的时候,就指定了Session范围内的拦截器。

Session session = sf.openSession( new AuditInterceptor() );

A SessionFactory-scoped interceptor is registered with the Configuration object prior to building the SessionFactory. Unless a session is opened explicitly specifying the interceptor to use, the supplied interceptor will be applied to all sessions opened from that SessionFactory. SessionFactory-scoped interceptors must be thread safe. Ensure that you do not store session-specific states, since multiple sessions will use this interceptor potentially concurrently.

new Configuration().setInterceptor( new AuditInterceptor() );

If you have to react to particular events in your persistence layer, you can also use the Hibernate3 event architecture. The event system can be used in addition, or as a replacement, for interceptors.

All the methods of the Session interface correlate to an event. You have a LoadEvent, a FlushEvent, etc. Consult the XML configuration-file DTD or the org.hibernate.event package for the full list of defined event types. When a request is made of one of these methods, the Hibernate Session generates an appropriate event and passes it to the configured event listeners for that type. Out-of-the-box, these listeners implement the same processing in which those methods always resulted. However, you are free to implement a customization of one of the listener interfaces (i.e., the LoadEvent is processed by the registered implementation of the LoadEventListener interface), in which case their implementation would be responsible for processing any load() requests made of the Session.

The listeners should be considered singletons. This means they are shared between requests, and should not save any state as instance variables.

A custom listener implements the appropriate interface for the event it wants to process and/or extend one of the convenience base classes (or even the default event listeners used by Hibernate out-of-the-box as these are declared non-final for this purpose). Custom listeners can either be registered programmatically through the Configuration object, or specified in the Hibernate configuration XML. Declarative configuration through the properties file is not supported. Here is an example of a custom load event listener:

public class MyLoadListener implements LoadEventListener {
    // this is the single method defined by the LoadEventListener interface
    public void onLoad(LoadEvent event, LoadEventListener.LoadType loadType)
            throws HibernateException {
        if ( !MySecurity.isAuthorized( event.getEntityClassName(), event.getEntityId() ) ) {
            throw MySecurityException("Unauthorized access");
        }
    }
}

你还需要修改一处配置,来告诉Hibernate,除了默认的监听器,还要附加选定的监听器。

<hibernate-configuration>
    <session-factory>
        ...
        <event type="load">
            <listener class="com.eg.MyLoadListener"/>
            <listener class="org.hibernate.event.def.DefaultLoadEventListener"/>
        </event>
    </session-factory>
</hibernate-configuration>

Instead, you can register it programmatically:

Configuration cfg = new Configuration();
LoadEventListener[] stack = { new MyLoadListener(), new DefaultLoadEventListener() };
cfg.EventListeners().setLoadEventListeners(stack);

Listeners registered declaratively cannot share instances. If the same class name is used in multiple <listener/> elements, each reference will result in a separate instance of that class. If you need to share listener instances between listener types you must use the programmatic registration approach.

Why implement an interface and define the specific type during configuration? A listener implementation could implement multiple event listener interfaces. Having the type additionally defined during registration makes it easier to turn custom listeners on or off during configuration.

A naive approach to inserting 100,000 rows in the database using Hibernate might look like this:

Session session = sessionFactory.openSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();
for ( int i=0; i<100000; i++ ) {
    Customer customer = new Customer(.....);
    session.save(customer);
}
tx.commit();
session.close();

This would fall over with an OutOfMemoryException somewhere around the 50,000th row. That is because Hibernate caches all the newly inserted Customer instances in the session-level cache. In this chapter we will show you how to avoid this problem.

If you are undertaking batch processing you will need to enable the use of JDBC batching. This is absolutely essential if you want to achieve optimal performance. Set the JDBC batch size to a reasonable number (10-50, for example):

hibernate.jdbc.batch_size 20

Hibernate disables insert batching at the JDBC level transparently if you use an identity identifier generator.

You can also do this kind of work in a process where interaction with the second-level cache is completely disabled:

hibernate.cache.use_second_level_cache false

但是,这不是绝对必须的,因为我们可以显式设置CacheMode来关闭与二级缓存的交互。

Alternatively, Hibernate provides a command-oriented API that can be used for streaming data to and from the database in the form of detached objects. A StatelessSession has no persistence context associated with it and does not provide many of the higher-level life cycle semantics. In particular, a stateless session does not implement a first-level cache nor interact with any second-level or query cache. It does not implement transactional write-behind or automatic dirty checking. Operations performed using a stateless session never cascade to associated instances. Collections are ignored by a stateless session. Operations performed via a stateless session bypass Hibernate's event model and interceptors. Due to the lack of a first-level cache, Stateless sessions are vulnerable to data aliasing effects. A stateless session is a lower-level abstraction that is much closer to the underlying JDBC.

StatelessSession session = sessionFactory.openStatelessSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();
   
ScrollableResults customers = session.getNamedQuery("GetCustomers")
    .scroll(ScrollMode.FORWARD_ONLY);
while ( customers.next() ) {
    Customer customer = (Customer) customers.get(0);
    customer.updateStuff(...);
    session.update(customer);
}
   
tx.commit();
session.close();

In this code example, the Customer instances returned by the query are immediately detached. They are never associated with any persistence context.

The insert(), update() and delete() operations defined by the StatelessSession interface are considered to be direct database row-level operations. They result in the immediate execution of a SQL INSERT, UPDATE or DELETE respectively. They have different semantics to the save(), saveOrUpdate() and delete() operations defined by the Session interface.

As already discussed, automatic and transparent object/relational mapping is concerned with the management of the object state. The object state is available in memory. This means that manipulating data directly in the database (using the SQL Data Manipulation Language (DML) the statements: INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE) will not affect in-memory state. However, Hibernate provides methods for bulk SQL-style DML statement execution that is performed through the Hibernate Query Language (HQL).

The pseudo-syntax for UPDATE and DELETE statements is: ( UPDATE | DELETE ) FROM? EntityName (WHERE where_conditions)?.

Some points to note:

  • 在FROM子句(from-clause)中,FROM关键字是可选的

  • There can only be a single entity named in the from-clause. It can, however, be aliased. If the entity name is aliased, then any property references must be qualified using that alias. If the entity name is not aliased, then it is illegal for any property references to be qualified.

  • No joins, either implicit or explicit, can be specified in a bulk HQL query. Sub-queries can be used in the where-clause, where the subqueries themselves may contain joins.

  • 整个WHERE子句是可选的。

As an example, to execute an HQL UPDATE, use the Query.executeUpdate() method. The method is named for those familiar with JDBC's PreparedStatement.executeUpdate():

Session session = sessionFactory.openSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();

String hqlUpdate = "update Customer c set c.name = :newName where c.name = :oldName";
// or String hqlUpdate = "update Customer set name = :newName where name = :oldName";
int updatedEntities = s.createQuery( hqlUpdate )
        .setString( "newName", newName )
        .setString( "oldName", oldName )
        .executeUpdate();
tx.commit();
session.close();

In keeping with the EJB3 specification, HQL UPDATE statements, by default, do not effect the version or the timestamp property values for the affected entities. However, you can force Hibernate to reset the version or timestamp property values through the use of a versioned update. This is achieved by adding the VERSIONED keyword after the UPDATE keyword.

Session session = sessionFactory.openSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();
String hqlVersionedUpdate = "update versioned Customer set name = :newName where name = :oldName";
int updatedEntities = s.createQuery( hqlUpdate )
        .setString( "newName", newName )
        .setString( "oldName", oldName )
        .executeUpdate();
tx.commit();
session.close();

Custom version types, org.hibernate.usertype.UserVersionType, are not allowed in conjunction with a update versioned statement.

执行一个HQL DELETE,同样使用 Query.executeUpdate() 方法:

Session session = sessionFactory.openSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();

String hqlDelete = "delete Customer c where c.name = :oldName";
// or String hqlDelete = "delete Customer where name = :oldName";
int deletedEntities = s.createQuery( hqlDelete )
        .setString( "oldName", oldName )
        .executeUpdate();
tx.commit();
session.close();

The int value returned by the Query.executeUpdate() method indicates the number of entities effected by the operation. This may or may not correlate to the number of rows effected in the database. An HQL bulk operation might result in multiple actual SQL statements being executed (for joined-subclass, for example). The returned number indicates the number of actual entities affected by the statement. Going back to the example of joined-subclass, a delete against one of the subclasses may actually result in deletes against not just the table to which that subclass is mapped, but also the "root" table and potentially joined-subclass tables further down the inheritance hierarchy.

INSERT语句的伪码是: INSERT INTO EntityName properties_list select_statement. 要注意的是:

  • 只支持INSERT INTO ... SELECT ...形式,不支持INSERT INTO ... VALUES ...形式.

    The properties_list is analogous to the column specification in the SQL INSERT statement. For entities involved in mapped inheritance, only properties directly defined on that given class-level can be used in the properties_list. Superclass properties are not allowed and subclass properties do not make sense. In other words, INSERT statements are inherently non-polymorphic.

  • select_statement can be any valid HQL select query, with the caveat that the return types must match the types expected by the insert. Currently, this is checked during query compilation rather than allowing the check to relegate to the database. This might, however, cause problems between Hibernate Types which are equivalent as opposed to equal. This might cause issues with mismatches between a property defined as a org.hibernate.type.DateType and a property defined as a org.hibernate.type.TimestampType, even though the database might not make a distinction or might be able to handle the conversion.

  • For the id property, the insert statement gives you two options. You can either explicitly specify the id property in the properties_list, in which case its value is taken from the corresponding select expression, or omit it from the properties_list, in which case a generated value is used. This latter option is only available when using id generators that operate in the database; attempting to use this option with any "in memory" type generators will cause an exception during parsing. For the purposes of this discussion, in-database generators are considered to be org.hibernate.id.SequenceGenerator (and its subclasses) and any implementers of org.hibernate.id.PostInsertIdentifierGenerator. The most notable exception here is org.hibernate.id.TableHiLoGenerator, which cannot be used because it does not expose a selectable way to get its values.

  • For properties mapped as either version or timestamp, the insert statement gives you two options. You can either specify the property in the properties_list, in which case its value is taken from the corresponding select expressions, or omit it from the properties_list, in which case the seed value defined by the org.hibernate.type.VersionType is used.

The following is an example of an HQL INSERT statement execution:

Session session = sessionFactory.openSession();
Transaction tx = session.beginTransaction();

String hqlInsert = "insert into DelinquentAccount (id, name) select c.id, c.name from Customer c where ...";
int createdEntities = s.createQuery( hqlInsert )
        .executeUpdate();
tx.commit();
session.close();

Hibernate uses a powerful query language (HQL) that is similar in appearance to SQL. Compared with SQL, however, HQL is fully object-oriented and understands notions like inheritance, polymorphism and association.

You can also assign aliases to associated entities or to elements of a collection of values using a join. For example:

from Cat as cat
    inner join cat.mate as mate
    left outer join cat.kittens as kitten
from Cat as cat left join cat.mate.kittens as kittens
from Formula form full join form.parameter param

The supported join types are borrowed from ANSI SQL:

语句inner join, left outer join 以及 right outer join 可以简写。

from Cat as cat
    join cat.mate as mate
    left join cat.kittens as kitten

通过HQL的with关键字,你可以提供额外的join条件。

from Cat as cat
    left join cat.kittens as kitten
        with kitten.bodyWeight > 10.0

A "fetch" join allows associations or collections of values to be initialized along with their parent objects using a single select. This is particularly useful in the case of a collection. It effectively overrides the outer join and lazy declarations of the mapping file for associations and collections. See 第 19.1 节 “抓取策略(Fetching strategies)” for more information.

from Cat as cat
    inner join fetch cat.mate
    left join fetch cat.kittens

A fetch join does not usually need to assign an alias, because the associated objects should not be used in the where clause (or any other clause). The associated objects are also not returned directly in the query results. Instead, they may be accessed via the parent object. The only reason you might need an alias is if you are recursively join fetching a further collection:

from Cat as cat
    inner join fetch cat.mate
    left join fetch cat.kittens child
    left join fetch child.kittens

The fetch construct cannot be used in queries called using iterate() (though scroll() can be used). Fetch should be used together with setMaxResults() or setFirstResult(), as these operations are based on the result rows which usually contain duplicates for eager collection fetching, hence, the number of rows is not what you would expect. Fetch should also not be used together with impromptu with condition. It is possible to create a cartesian product by join fetching more than one collection in a query, so take care in this case. Join fetching multiple collection roles can produce unexpected results for bag mappings, so user discretion is advised when formulating queries in this case. Finally, note that full join fetch and right join fetch are not meaningful.

If you are using property-level lazy fetching (with bytecode instrumentation), it is possible to force Hibernate to fetch the lazy properties in the first query immediately using fetch all properties.

from Document fetch all properties order by name
from Document doc fetch all properties where lower(doc.name) like '%cats%'

The where clause allows you to refine the list of instances returned. If no alias exists, you can refer to properties by name:

from Cat where name='Fritz'

如果指派了别名,需要使用完整的属性名:

from Cat as cat where cat.name='Fritz'

This returns instances of Cat named 'Fritz'.

The following query:

select foo
from Foo foo, Bar bar
where foo.startDate = bar.date

returns all instances of Foo with an instance of bar with a date property equal to the startDate property of the Foo. Compound path expressions make the where clause extremely powerful. Consider the following:

from Cat cat where cat.mate.name is not null

This query translates to an SQL query with a table (inner) join. For example:

from Foo foo
where foo.bar.baz.customer.address.city is not null

would result in a query that would require four table joins in SQL.

The = operator can be used to compare not only properties, but also instances:

from Cat cat, Cat rival where cat.mate = rival.mate
select cat, mate
from Cat cat, Cat mate
where cat.mate = mate

The special property (lowercase) id can be used to reference the unique identifier of an object. See 第 14.5 节 “Referring to identifier property” for more information.

from Cat as cat where cat.id = 123

from Cat as cat where cat.mate.id = 69

The second query is efficient and does not require a table join.

Properties of composite identifiers can also be used. Consider the following example where Person has composite identifiers consisting of country and medicareNumber:

from bank.Person person
where person.id.country = 'AU'
    and person.id.medicareNumber = 123456
from bank.Account account
where account.owner.id.country = 'AU'
    and account.owner.id.medicareNumber = 123456

Once again, the second query does not require a table join.

See 第 14.5 节 “Referring to identifier property” for more information regarding referencing identifier properties)

The special property class accesses the discriminator value of an instance in the case of polymorphic persistence. A Java class name embedded in the where clause will be translated to its discriminator value.

from Cat cat where cat.class = DomesticCat

You can also use components or composite user types, or properties of said component types. See 第 14.17 节 “translator-credits” for more information.

An "any" type has the special properties id and class that allows you to express a join in the following way (where AuditLog.item is a property mapped with <any>):

from AuditLog log, Payment payment
where log.item.class = 'Payment' and log.item.id = payment.id

The log.item.class and payment.class would refer to the values of completely different database columns in the above query.

Expressions used in the where clause include the following:

in and between can be used as follows:

from DomesticCat cat where cat.name between 'A' and 'B'
from DomesticCat cat where cat.name in ( 'Foo', 'Bar', 'Baz' )

The negated forms can be written as follows:

from DomesticCat cat where cat.name not between 'A' and 'B'
from DomesticCat cat where cat.name not in ( 'Foo', 'Bar', 'Baz' )

Similarly, is null and is not null can be used to test for null values.

Booleans can be easily used in expressions by declaring HQL query substitutions in Hibernate configuration:

<property name="hibernate.query.substitutions">true 1, false 0</property>

系统将该HQL转换为SQL语句时,该设置表明将用字符 10 来 取代关键字truefalse:

from Cat cat where cat.alive = true

You can test the size of a collection with the special property size or the special size() function.

from Cat cat where cat.kittens.size > 0
from Cat cat where size(cat.kittens) > 0

For indexed collections, you can refer to the minimum and maximum indices using minindex and maxindex functions. Similarly, you can refer to the minimum and maximum elements of a collection of basic type using the minelement and maxelement functions. For example:

from Calendar cal where maxelement(cal.holidays) > current_date
from Order order where maxindex(order.items) > 100
from Order order where minelement(order.items) > 10000

The SQL functions any, some, all, exists, in are supported when passed the element or index set of a collection (elements and indices functions) or the result of a subquery (see below):

select mother from Cat as mother, Cat as kit
where kit in elements(foo.kittens)
select p from NameList list, Person p
where p.name = some elements(list.names)
from Cat cat where exists elements(cat.kittens)
from Player p where 3 > all elements(p.scores)
from Show show where 'fizard' in indices(show.acts)

Note that these constructs - size, elements, indices, minindex, maxindex, minelement, maxelement - can only be used in the where clause in Hibernate3.

Elements of indexed collections (arrays, lists, and maps) can be referred to by index in a where clause only:

from Order order where order.items[0].id = 1234
select person from Person person, Calendar calendar
where calendar.holidays['national day'] = person.birthDay
    and person.nationality.calendar = calendar
select item from Item item, Order order
where order.items[ order.deliveredItemIndices[0] ] = item and order.id = 11
select item from Item item, Order order
where order.items[ maxindex(order.items) ] = item and order.id = 11

The expression inside [] can even be an arithmetic expression:

select item from Item item, Order order
where order.items[ size(order.items) - 1 ] = item

HQL also provides the built-in index() function for elements of a one-to-many association or collection of values.

select item, index(item) from Order order
    join order.items item
where index(item) < 5

Scalar SQL functions supported by the underlying database can be used:

from DomesticCat cat where upper(cat.name) like 'FRI%'

Consider how much longer and less readable the following query would be in SQL:

select cust
from Product prod,
    Store store
    inner join store.customers cust
where prod.name = 'widget'
    and store.location.name in ( 'Melbourne', 'Sydney' )
    and prod = all elements(cust.currentOrder.lineItems)

提示: 会像如下的语句

SELECT cust.name, cust.address, cust.phone, cust.id, cust.current_order
FROM customers cust,
    stores store,
    locations loc,
    store_customers sc,
    product prod
WHERE prod.name = 'widget'
    AND store.loc_id = loc.id
    AND loc.name IN ( 'Melbourne', 'Sydney' )
    AND sc.store_id = store.id
    AND sc.cust_id = cust.id
    AND prod.id = ALL(
        SELECT item.prod_id
        FROM line_items item, orders o
        WHERE item.order_id = o.id
            AND cust.current_order = o.id
    )

Hibernate queries can be quite powerful and complex. In fact, the power of the query language is one of Hibernate's main strengths. The following example queries are similar to queries that have been used on recent projects. Please note that most queries you will write will be much simpler than the following examples.

The following query returns the order id, number of items, the given minimum total value and the total value of the order for all unpaid orders for a particular customer. The results are ordered by total value. In determining the prices, it uses the current catalog. The resulting SQL query, against the ORDER, ORDER_LINE, PRODUCT, CATALOG and PRICE tables has four inner joins and an (uncorrelated) subselect.

select order.id, sum(price.amount), count(item)
from Order as order
    join order.lineItems as item
    join item.product as product,
    Catalog as catalog
    join catalog.prices as price
where order.paid = false
    and order.customer = :customer
    and price.product = product
    and catalog.effectiveDate < sysdate
    and catalog.effectiveDate >= all (
        select cat.effectiveDate
        from Catalog as cat
        where cat.effectiveDate < sysdate
    )
group by order
having sum(price.amount) > :minAmount
order by sum(price.amount) desc

这简直是一个怪物!实际上,在现实生活中,我并不热衷于子查询,所以我的查询语句看起来更像这个:

select order.id, sum(price.amount), count(item)
from Order as order
    join order.lineItems as item
    join item.product as product,
    Catalog as catalog
    join catalog.prices as price
where order.paid = false
    and order.customer = :customer
    and price.product = product
    and catalog = :currentCatalog
group by order
having sum(price.amount) > :minAmount
order by sum(price.amount) desc

下面一个查询计算每一种状态下的支付的数目,除去所有处于AWAITING_APPROVAL状态的支付,因为在该状态下 当前的用户作出了状态的最新改变。该查询被转换成含有两个内连接以及一个相关联的子选择的SQL查询,该查询使用了表 PAYMENT, PAYMENT_STATUS 以及 PAYMENT_STATUS_CHANGE

select count(payment), status.name
from Payment as payment
    join payment.currentStatus as status
    join payment.statusChanges as statusChange
where payment.status.name <> PaymentStatus.AWAITING_APPROVAL
    or (
        statusChange.timeStamp = (
            select max(change.timeStamp)
            from PaymentStatusChange change
            where change.payment = payment
        )
        and statusChange.user <> :currentUser
    )
group by status.name, status.sortOrder
order by status.sortOrder

If the statusChanges collection was mapped as a list, instead of a set, the query would have been much simpler to write.

select count(payment), status.name
from Payment as payment
    join payment.currentStatus as status
where payment.status.name <> PaymentStatus.AWAITING_APPROVAL
    or payment.statusChanges[ maxIndex(payment.statusChanges) ].user <> :currentUser
group by status.name, status.sortOrder
order by status.sortOrder

下面一个查询使用了MS SQL Server的 isNull()函数用以返回当前用户所属组织的组织帐号及组织未支付的账。 它被转换成一个对表ACCOUNT, PAYMENT, PAYMENT_STATUS, ACCOUNT_TYPE, ORGANIZATION 以及 ORG_USER进行的三个内连接, 一个外连接和一个子选择的SQL查询。

select account, payment
from Account as account
    left outer join account.payments as payment
where :currentUser in elements(account.holder.users)
    and PaymentStatus.UNPAID = isNull(payment.currentStatus.name, PaymentStatus.UNPAID)
order by account.type.sortOrder, account.accountNumber, payment.dueDate

对于一些数据库,我们需要弃用(相关的)子选择。

select account, payment
from Account as account
    join account.holder.users as user
    left outer join account.payments as payment
where :currentUser = user
    and PaymentStatus.UNPAID = isNull(payment.currentStatus.name, PaymentStatus.UNPAID)
order by account.type.sortOrder, account.accountNumber, payment.dueDate

You can count the number of query results without returning them:

( (Integer) session.createQuery("select count(*) from ....").iterate().next() ).intValue()

若想根据一个集合的大小来进行排序,可以使用如下的语句:

select usr.id, usr.name
from User as usr
    left join usr.messages as msg
group by usr.id, usr.name
order by count(msg)

如果你的数据库支持子选择,你可以在你的查询的where子句中为选择的大小(selection size)指定一个条件:

from User usr where size(usr.messages) >= 1

If your database does not support subselects, use the following query:

select usr.id, usr.name
from User usr.name
    join usr.messages msg
group by usr.id, usr.name
having count(msg) >= 1

As this solution cannot return a User with zero messages because of the inner join, the following form is also useful:

select usr.id, usr.name
from User as usr
    left join usr.messages as msg
group by usr.id, usr.name
having count(msg) = 0

JavaBean的属性可以被绑定到一个命名查询(named query)的参数上:

Query q = s.createQuery("from foo Foo as foo where foo.name=:name and foo.size=:size");
q.setProperties(fooBean); // fooBean has getName() and getSize()
List foos = q.list();

通过将接口Query与一个过滤器(filter)一起使用,集合(Collections)是可以分页的:

Query q = s.createFilter( collection, "" ); // the trivial filter
q.setMaxResults(PAGE_SIZE);
q.setFirstResult(PAGE_SIZE * pageNumber);
List page = q.list();

Collection elements can be ordered or grouped using a query filter:

Collection orderedCollection = s.filter( collection, "order by this.amount" );
Collection counts = s.filter( collection, "select this.type, count(this) group by this.type" );

不用通过初始化,你就可以知道一个集合(Collection)的大小:

( (Integer) session.createQuery("select count(*) from ....").iterate().next() ).intValue();

具有一个直观的、可扩展的条件查询API是Hibernate的特色。

一个单独的查询条件是org.hibernate.criterion.Criterion 接口的一个实例。org.hibernate.criterion.Restrictions类 定义了获得某些内置Criterion类型的工厂方法。

List cats = sess.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .add( Restrictions.like("name", "Fritz%") )
    .add( Restrictions.between("weight", minWeight, maxWeight) )
    .list();

Restrictions can be grouped logically.

List cats = sess.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .add( Restrictions.like("name", "Fritz%") )
    .add( Restrictions.or(
        Restrictions.eq( "age", new Integer(0) ),
        Restrictions.isNull("age")
    ) )
    .list();
List cats = sess.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .add( Restrictions.in( "name", new String[] { "Fritz", "Izi", "Pk" } ) )
    .add( Restrictions.disjunction()
        .add( Restrictions.isNull("age") )
        .add( Restrictions.eq("age", new Integer(0) ) )
        .add( Restrictions.eq("age", new Integer(1) ) )
        .add( Restrictions.eq("age", new Integer(2) ) )
    ) )
    .list();

There are a range of built-in criterion types (Restrictions subclasses). One of the most useful allows you to specify SQL directly.

List cats = sess.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .add( Restrictions.sqlRestriction("lower({alias}.name) like lower(?)", "Fritz%", Hibernate.STRING) )
    .list();

{alias}占位符应当被替换为被查询实体的列别名。

You can also obtain a criterion from a Property instance. You can create a Property by calling Property.forName():

Property age = Property.forName("age");
List cats = sess.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .add( Restrictions.disjunction()
        .add( age.isNull() )
        .add( age.eq( new Integer(0) ) )
        .add( age.eq( new Integer(1) ) )
        .add( age.eq( new Integer(2) ) )
    ) )
    .add( Property.forName("name").in( new String[] { "Fritz", "Izi", "Pk" } ) )
    .list();

The class org.hibernate.criterion.Projections is a factory for Projection instances. You can apply a projection to a query by calling setProjection().

List results = session.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .setProjection( Projections.rowCount() )
    .add( Restrictions.eq("color", Color.BLACK) )
    .list();
List results = session.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .setProjection( Projections.projectionList()
        .add( Projections.rowCount() )
        .add( Projections.avg("weight") )
        .add( Projections.max("weight") )
        .add( Projections.groupProperty("color") )
    )
    .list();

在一个条件查询中没有必要显式的使用 "group by" 。某些投影类型就是被定义为 分组投影,他们也出现在SQL的group by子句中。

An alias can be assigned to a projection so that the projected value can be referred to in restrictions or orderings. Here are two different ways to do this:

List results = session.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .setProjection( Projections.alias( Projections.groupProperty("color"), "colr" ) )
    .addOrder( Order.asc("colr") )
    .list();
List results = session.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .setProjection( Projections.groupProperty("color").as("colr") )
    .addOrder( Order.asc("colr") )
    .list();

alias()as()方法简便的将一个投影实例包装到另外一个 别名的Projection实例中。简而言之,当你添加一个投影到一个投影列表中时 你可以为它指定一个别名:

List results = session.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .setProjection( Projections.projectionList()
        .add( Projections.rowCount(), "catCountByColor" )
        .add( Projections.avg("weight"), "avgWeight" )
        .add( Projections.max("weight"), "maxWeight" )
        .add( Projections.groupProperty("color"), "color" )
    )
    .addOrder( Order.desc("catCountByColor") )
    .addOrder( Order.desc("avgWeight") )
    .list();
List results = session.createCriteria(Domestic.class, "cat")
    .createAlias("kittens", "kit")
    .setProjection( Projections.projectionList()
        .add( Projections.property("cat.name"), "catName" )
        .add( Projections.property("kit.name"), "kitName" )
    )
    .addOrder( Order.asc("catName") )
    .addOrder( Order.asc("kitName") )
    .list();

你也可以使用Property.forName()来表示投影:

List results = session.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .setProjection( Property.forName("name") )
    .add( Property.forName("color").eq(Color.BLACK) )
    .list();
List results = session.createCriteria(Cat.class)
    .setProjection( Projections.projectionList()
        .add( Projections.rowCount().as("catCountByColor") )
        .add( Property.forName("weight").avg().as("avgWeight") )
        .add( Property.forName("weight").max().as("maxWeight") )
        .add( Property.forName("color").group().as("color" )
    )
    .addOrder( Order.desc("catCountByColor") )
    .addOrder( Order.desc("avgWeight") )
    .list();

You can also express queries in the native SQL dialect of your database. This is useful if you want to utilize database-specific features such as query hints or the CONNECT keyword in Oracle. It also provides a clean migration path from a direct SQL/JDBC based application to Hibernate.

Hibernate3 allows you to specify handwritten SQL, including stored procedures, for all create, update, delete, and load operations.

Execution of native SQL queries is controlled via the SQLQuery interface, which is obtained by calling Session.createSQLQuery(). The following sections describe how to use this API for querying.

最基本的SQL查询就是获得一个标量(数值)的列表。

sess.createSQLQuery("SELECT * FROM CATS").list();
sess.createSQLQuery("SELECT ID, NAME, BIRTHDATE FROM CATS").list();

These will return a List of Object arrays (Object[]) with scalar values for each column in the CATS table. Hibernate will use ResultSetMetadata to deduce the actual order and types of the returned scalar values.

To avoid the overhead of using ResultSetMetadata, or simply to be more explicit in what is returned, one can use addScalar():

sess.createSQLQuery("SELECT * FROM CATS")
 .addScalar("ID", Hibernate.LONG)
 .addScalar("NAME", Hibernate.STRING)
 .addScalar("BIRTHDATE", Hibernate.DATE)

This query specified:

This will return Object arrays, but now it will not use ResultSetMetadata but will instead explicitly get the ID, NAME and BIRTHDATE column as respectively a Long, String and a Short from the underlying resultset. This also means that only these three columns will be returned, even though the query is using * and could return more than the three listed columns.

对全部或者部分的标量值不设置类型信息也是可以的。

sess.createSQLQuery("SELECT * FROM CATS")
 .addScalar("ID", Hibernate.LONG)
 .addScalar("NAME")
 .addScalar("BIRTHDATE")

This is essentially the same query as before, but now ResultSetMetaData is used to determine the type of NAME and BIRTHDATE, where as the type of ID is explicitly specified.

How the java.sql.Types returned from ResultSetMetaData is mapped to Hibernate types is controlled by the Dialect. If a specific type is not mapped, or does not result in the expected type, it is possible to customize it via calls to registerHibernateType in the Dialect.

Until now, the result set column names are assumed to be the same as the column names specified in the mapping document. This can be problematic for SQL queries that join multiple tables, since the same column names can appear in more than one table.

下面的查询中需要使用字段别名注射(这个例子本身会失败):

sess.createSQLQuery("SELECT c.*, m.*  FROM CATS c, CATS m WHERE c.MOTHER_ID = c.ID")
 .addEntity("cat", Cat.class)
 .addEntity("mother", Cat.class)

The query was intended to return two Cat instances per row: a cat and its mother. The query will, however, fail because there is a conflict of names; the instances are mapped to the same column names. Also, on some databases the returned column aliases will most likely be on the form "c.ID", "c.NAME", etc. which are not equal to the columns specified in the mappings ("ID" and "NAME").

下面的形式可以解决字段名重复:

sess.createSQLQuery("SELECT {cat.*}, {mother.*}  FROM CATS c, CATS m WHERE c.MOTHER_ID = c.ID")
 .addEntity("cat", Cat.class)
 .addEntity("mother", Cat.class)

This query specified:

The {cat.*} and {mother.*} notation used above is a shorthand for "all properties". Alternatively, you can list the columns explicitly, but even in this case Hibernate injects the SQL column aliases for each property. The placeholder for a column alias is just the property name qualified by the table alias. In the following example, you retrieve Cats and their mothers from a different table (cat_log) to the one declared in the mapping metadata. You can even use the property aliases in the where clause.

String sql = "SELECT ID as {c.id}, NAME as {c.name}, " + 
         "BIRTHDATE as {c.birthDate}, MOTHER_ID as {c.mother}, {mother.*} " +
         "FROM CAT_LOG c, CAT_LOG m WHERE {c.mother} = c.ID";

List loggedCats = sess.createSQLQuery(sql)
        .addEntity("cat", Cat.class)
        .addEntity("mother", Cat.class).list()

Named SQL queries can be defined in the mapping document and called in exactly the same way as a named HQL query. In this case, you do not need to call addEntity().

<sql-query name="persons">
    <return alias="person" class="eg.Person"/>
    SELECT person.NAME AS {person.name},
           person.AGE AS {person.age},
           person.SEX AS {person.sex}
    FROM PERSON person
    WHERE person.NAME LIKE :namePattern
</sql-query>
List people = sess.getNamedQuery("persons")
    .setString("namePattern", namePattern)
    .setMaxResults(50)
    .list();

The <return-join> element is use to join associations and the <load-collection> element is used to define queries which initialize collections,

<sql-query name="personsWith">
    <return alias="person" class="eg.Person"/>
    <return-join alias="address" property="person.mailingAddress"/>
    SELECT person.NAME AS {person.name},
           person.AGE AS {person.age},
           person.SEX AS {person.sex},
           address.STREET AS {address.street},
           address.CITY AS {address.city},
           address.STATE AS {address.state},
           address.ZIP AS {address.zip}
    FROM PERSON person
    JOIN ADDRESS address
        ON person.ID = address.PERSON_ID AND address.TYPE='MAILING'
    WHERE person.NAME LIKE :namePattern
</sql-query>

一个命名查询可能会返回一个标量值.你必须使用<return-scalar>元素来指定字段的别名和 Hibernate类型

<sql-query name="mySqlQuery">
    <return-scalar column="name" type="string"/>
    <return-scalar column="age" type="long"/>
    SELECT p.NAME AS name,
           p.AGE AS age,
    FROM PERSON p WHERE p.NAME LIKE 'Hiber%'
</sql-query>

You can externalize the resultset mapping information in a <resultset> element which will allow you to either reuse them across several named queries or through the setResultSetMapping() API.

<resultset name="personAddress">
    <return alias="person" class="eg.Person"/>
    <return-join alias="address" property="person.mailingAddress"/>
</resultset>

<sql-query name="personsWith" resultset-ref="personAddress">
    SELECT person.NAME AS {person.name},
           person.AGE AS {person.age},
           person.SEX AS {person.sex},
           address.STREET AS {address.street},
           address.CITY AS {address.city},
           address.STATE AS {address.state},
           address.ZIP AS {address.zip}
    FROM PERSON person
    JOIN ADDRESS address
        ON person.ID = address.PERSON_ID AND address.TYPE='MAILING'
    WHERE person.NAME LIKE :namePattern
</sql-query>

You can, alternatively, use the resultset mapping information in your hbm files directly in java code.

List cats = sess.createSQLQuery(
        "select {cat.*}, {kitten.*} from cats cat, cats kitten where kitten.mother = cat.id"
    )
    .setResultSetMapping("catAndKitten")
    .list();

You can explicitly tell Hibernate what column aliases to use with <return-property>, instead of using the {}-syntax to let Hibernate inject its own aliases.For example:

<sql-query name="mySqlQuery">
    <return alias="person" class="eg.Person">
        <return-property name="name" column="myName"/>
        <return-property name="age" column="myAge"/>
        <return-property name="sex" column="mySex"/>
    </return>
    SELECT person.NAME AS myName,
           person.AGE AS myAge,
           person.SEX AS mySex,
    FROM PERSON person WHERE person.NAME LIKE :name
</sql-query>

<return-property> also works with multiple columns. This solves a limitation with the {}-syntax which cannot allow fine grained control of multi-column properties.

<sql-query name="organizationCurrentEmployments">
    <return alias="emp" class="Employment">
        <return-property name="salary">
            <return-column name="VALUE"/>
            <return-column name="CURRENCY"/>
        </return-property>
        <return-property name="endDate" column="myEndDate"/>
    </return>
        SELECT EMPLOYEE AS {emp.employee}, EMPLOYER AS {emp.employer},
        STARTDATE AS {emp.startDate}, ENDDATE AS {emp.endDate},
        REGIONCODE as {emp.regionCode}, EID AS {emp.id}, VALUE, CURRENCY
        FROM EMPLOYMENT
        WHERE EMPLOYER = :id AND ENDDATE IS NULL
        ORDER BY STARTDATE ASC
</sql-query>

In this example <return-property> was used in combination with the {}-syntax for injection. This allows users to choose how they want to refer column and properties.

如果你映射一个识别器(discriminator),你必须使用<return-discriminator> 来指定识别器字段

Hibernate3 provides support for queries via stored procedures and functions. Most of the following documentation is equivalent for both. The stored procedure/function must return a resultset as the first out-parameter to be able to work with Hibernate. An example of such a stored function in Oracle 9 and higher is as follows:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION selectAllEmployments
    RETURN SYS_REFCURSOR
AS
    st_cursor SYS_REFCURSOR;
BEGIN
    OPEN st_cursor FOR
 SELECT EMPLOYEE, EMPLOYER,
 STARTDATE, ENDDATE,
 REGIONCODE, EID, VALUE, CURRENCY
 FROM EMPLOYMENT;
      RETURN  st_cursor;
 END;

在Hibernate里要要使用这个查询,你需要通过命名查询来映射它.

<sql-query name="selectAllEmployees_SP" callable="true">
    <return alias="emp" class="Employment">
        <return-property name="employee" column="EMPLOYEE"/>
        <return-property name="employer" column="EMPLOYER"/>
        <return-property name="startDate" column="STARTDATE"/>
        <return-property name="endDate" column="ENDDATE"/>
        <return-property name="regionCode" column="REGIONCODE"/>
        <return-property name="id" column="EID"/>
        <return-property name="salary">
            <return-column name="VALUE"/>
            <return-column name="CURRENCY"/>
        </return-property>
    </return>
    { ? = call selectAllEmployments() }
</sql-query>

Stored procedures currently only return scalars and entities. <return-join> and <load-collection> are not supported.

Hibernate3能够使用定制的SQL语句来执行create,update和delete操作。在Hibernate中,持久化的类和集合已经 包含了一套配置期产生的语句(insertsql, deletesql, updatesql等等),这些映射标记 <sql-insert>, <sql-delete>, and <sql-update>重载了 这些语句。

<class name="Person">
    <id name="id">
        <generator class="increment"/>
    </id>
    <property name="name" not-null="true"/>
    <sql-insert>INSERT INTO PERSON (NAME, ID) VALUES ( UPPER(?), ? )</sql-insert>
    <sql-update>UPDATE PERSON SET NAME=UPPER(?) WHERE ID=?</sql-update>
    <sql-delete>DELETE FROM PERSON WHERE ID=?</sql-delete>
</class>

The SQL is directly executed in your database, so you can use any dialect you like. This will reduce the portability of your mapping if you use database specific SQL.

如果设定callable,则能够支持存储过程了。

<class name="Person">
    <id name="id">
        <generator class="increment"/>
    </id>
    <property name="name" not-null="true"/>
    <sql-insert callable="true">{call createPerson (?, ?)}</sql-insert>
    <sql-delete callable="true">{? = call deletePerson (?)}</sql-delete>
    <sql-update callable="true">{? = call updatePerson (?, ?)}</sql-update>
</class>

The order of the positional parameters is vital, as they must be in the same sequence as Hibernate expects them.

You can view the expected order by enabling debug logging for the org.hibernate.persister.entity level. With this level enabled, Hibernate will print out the static SQL that is used to create, update, delete etc. entities. To view the expected sequence, do not include your custom SQL in the mapping files, as this will override the Hibernate generated static SQL.

The stored procedures are in most cases required to return the number of rows inserted, updated and deleted, as Hibernate has some runtime checks for the success of the statement. Hibernate always registers the first statement parameter as a numeric output parameter for the CUD operations:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION updatePerson (uid IN NUMBER, uname IN VARCHAR2)
    RETURN NUMBER IS
BEGIN

    update PERSON
    set
        NAME = uname,
    where
        ID = uid;

    return SQL%ROWCOUNT;

END updatePerson;

Hibernate3 provides an innovative new approach to handling data with "visibility" rules. A Hibernate filter is a global, named, parameterized filter that can be enabled or disabled for a particular Hibernate session.

Hibernate3 has the ability to pre-define filter criteria and attach those filters at both a class level and a collection level. A filter criteria allows you to define a restriction clause similar to the existing "where" attribute available on the class and various collection elements. These filter conditions, however, can be parameterized. The application can then decide at runtime whether certain filters should be enabled and what their parameter values should be. Filters can be used like database views, but they are parameterized inside the application.

要使用过滤器,必须首先在相应的映射节点中定义。而定义一个过滤器,要用到位于<hibernate-mapping/> 节点之内的<filter-def/>节点:

<filter-def name="myFilter">
    <filter-param name="myFilterParam" type="string"/>
</filter-def>

This filter can then be attached to a class:

<class name="myClass" ...>
    ...
    <filter name="myFilter" condition=":myFilterParam = MY_FILTERED_COLUMN"/>
</class>

Or, to a collection:

<set ...>
    <filter name="myFilter" condition=":myFilterParam = MY_FILTERED_COLUMN"/>
</set>

Or, to both or multiples of each at the same time.

The methods on Session are: enableFilter(String filterName), getEnabledFilter(String filterName), and disableFilter(String filterName). By default, filters are not enabled for a given session. Filters must be enabled through use of the Session.enableFilter() method, which returns an instance of the Filter interface. If you used the simple filter defined above, it would look like this:

session.enableFilter("myFilter").setParameter("myFilterParam", "some-value");

Methods on the org.hibernate.Filter interface do allow the method-chaining common to much of Hibernate.

The following is a full example, using temporal data with an effective record date pattern:

<filter-def name="effectiveDate">
    <filter-param name="asOfDate" type="date"/>
</filter-def>

<class name="Employee" ...>
...
    <many-to-one name="department" column="dept_id" class="Department"/>
    <property name="effectiveStartDate" type="date" column="eff_start_dt"/>
    <property name="effectiveEndDate" type="date" column="eff_end_dt"/>
...
    <!--
        Note that this assumes non-terminal records have an eff_end_dt set to
        a max db date for simplicity-sake
    -->
    <filter name="effectiveDate"
            condition=":asOfDate BETWEEN eff_start_dt and eff_end_dt"/>
</class>

<class name="Department" ...>
...
    <set name="employees" lazy="true">
        <key column="dept_id"/>
        <one-to-many class="Employee"/>
        <filter name="effectiveDate"
                condition=":asOfDate BETWEEN eff_start_dt and eff_end_dt"/>
    </set>
</class>

In order to ensure that you are provided with currently effective records, enable the filter on the session prior to retrieving employee data:

Session session = ...;
session.enableFilter("effectiveDate").setParameter("asOfDate", new Date());
List results = session.createQuery("from Employee as e where e.salary > :targetSalary")
         .setLong("targetSalary", new Long(1000000))
         .list();

Even though a salary constraint was mentioned explicitly on the results in the above HQL, because of the enabled filter, the query will return only currently active employees who have a salary greater than one million dollars.

If you want to use filters with outer joining, either through HQL or load fetching, be careful of the direction of the condition expression. It is safest to set this up for left outer joining. Place the parameter first followed by the column name(s) after the operator.

After being defined, a filter might be attached to multiple entities and/or collections each with its own condition. This can be problematic when the conditions are the same each time. Using <filter-def/> allows you to definine a default condition, either as an attribute or CDATA:

<filter-def name="myFilter" condition="abc > xyz">...</filter-def>
<filter-def name="myOtherFilter">abc=xyz</filter-def>

This default condition will be used whenever the filter is attached to something without specifying a condition. This means you can give a specific condition as part of the attachment of the filter that overrides the default condition in that particular case.

XML Mapping is an experimental feature in Hibernate 3.0 and is currently under active development.

Hibernate allows you to work with persistent XML data in much the same way you work with persistent POJOs. A parsed XML tree can be thought of as another way of representing the relational data at the object level, instead of POJOs.

Hibernate支持采用dom4j作为操作XML树的API。你可以写一些查询从数据库中检索出 dom4j树,随后你对这颗树做的任何修改都将自动同步回数据库。你甚至可以用dom4j解析 一篇XML文档,然后使用Hibernate的任一基本操作将它写入数据库: persist(), saveOrUpdate(), merge(), delete(), replicate() (合并操作merge()目前还不支持)。

这一特性可以应用在很多场合,包括数据导入导出,通过JMS或SOAP具体化实体数据以及 基于XSLT的报表。

A single mapping can be used to simultaneously map properties of a class and nodes of an XML document to the database, or, if there is no class to map, it can be used to map just the XML.

A range of Hibernate mapping elements accept the node attribute. This lets you specify the name of an XML attribute or element that holds the property or entity data. The format of the node attribute must be one of the following:

For collections and single valued associations, there is an additional embed-xml attribute. If embed-xml="true", the default, the XML tree for the associated entity (or collection of value type) will be embedded directly in the XML tree for the entity that owns the association. Otherwise, if embed-xml="false", then only the referenced identifier value will appear in the XML for single point associations and collections will not appear at all.

Do not leave embed-xml="true" for too many associations, since XML does not deal well with circularity.

<class name="Customer" 
        table="CUSTOMER" 
        node="customer">
        
    <id name="id" 
            column="CUST_ID" 
            node="@id"/>
            
    <map name="accounts" 
            node="." 
            embed-xml="true">
        <key column="CUSTOMER_ID" 
                not-null="true"/>
        <map-key column="SHORT_DESC" 
                node="@short-desc" 
                type="string"/>
        <one-to-many entity-name="Account"
                embed-xml="false" 
                node="account"/>
    </map>
    
    <component name="name" 
            node="name">
        <property name="firstName" 
                node="first-name"/>
        <property name="initial" 
                node="initial"/>
        <property name="lastName" 
                node="last-name"/>
    </component>
    
    ...
    
</class>

In this case, the collection of account ids is embedded, but not the actual account data. The following HQL query:

from Customer c left join fetch c.accounts where c.lastName like :lastName

would return datasets such as this:

<customer id="123456789">
    <account short-desc="Savings">987632567</account>
    <account short-desc="Credit Card">985612323</account>
    <name>
        <first-name>Gavin</first-name>
        <initial>A</initial>
        <last-name>King</last-name>
    </name>
    ...
</customer>

如果你把一对多映射<one-to-many>的embed-xml属性置为真(embed-xml="true"), 则数据看上去就像这样:

<customer id="123456789">
    <account id="987632567" short-desc="Savings">
        <customer id="123456789"/>
        <balance>100.29</balance>
    </account>
    <account id="985612323" short-desc="Credit Card">
        <customer id="123456789"/>
        <balance>-2370.34</balance>
    </account>
    <name>
        <first-name>Gavin</first-name>
        <initial>A</initial>
        <last-name>King</last-name>
    </name>
    ...
</customer>

Hibernate uses a fetching strategy to retrieve associated objects if the application needs to navigate the association. Fetch strategies can be declared in the O/R mapping metadata, or over-ridden by a particular HQL or Criteria query.

Hibernate3 定义了如下几种抓取策略:

Hibernate会区分下列各种情况:

We have two orthogonal notions here: when is the association fetched and how is it fetched. It is important that you do not confuse them. We use fetch to tune performance. We can use lazy to define a contract for what data is always available in any detached instance of a particular class.

By default, Hibernate3 uses lazy select fetching for collections and lazy proxy fetching for single-valued associations. These defaults make sense for most associations in the majority of applications.

If you set hibernate.default_batch_fetch_size, Hibernate will use the batch fetch optimization for lazy fetching. This optimization can also be enabled at a more granular level.

Please be aware that access to a lazy association outside of the context of an open Hibernate session will result in an exception. For example:

s = sessions.openSession();
Transaction tx = s.beginTransaction();
            
User u = (User) s.createQuery("from User u where u.name=:userName")
    .setString("userName", userName).uniqueResult();
Map permissions = u.getPermissions();

tx.commit();
s.close();

Integer accessLevel = (Integer) permissions.get("accounts");  // Error!

Since the permissions collection was not initialized when the Session was closed, the collection will not be able to load its state. Hibernate does not support lazy initialization for detached objects. This can be fixed by moving the code that reads from the collection to just before the transaction is committed.

Alternatively, you can use a non-lazy collection or association, by specifying lazy="false" for the association mapping. However, it is intended that lazy initialization be used for almost all collections and associations. If you define too many non-lazy associations in your object model, Hibernate will fetch the entire database into memory in every transaction.

On the other hand, you can use join fetching, which is non-lazy by nature, instead of select fetching in a particular transaction. We will now explain how to customize the fetching strategy. In Hibernate3, the mechanisms for choosing a fetch strategy are identical for single-valued associations and collections.

查询抓取(默认的)在N+1查询的情况下是极其脆弱的,因此我们可能会要求在映射文档中定义使用连接抓取:

<set name="permissions" 
            fetch="join">
    <key column="userId"/>
    <one-to-many class="Permission"/>
</set
<many-to-one name="mother" class="Cat" fetch="join"/>

在映射文档中定义的抓取策略将会对以下列表条目产生影响:

Irrespective of the fetching strategy you use, the defined non-lazy graph is guaranteed to be loaded into memory. This might, however, result in several immediate selects being used to execute a particular HQL query.

Usually, the mapping document is not used to customize fetching. Instead, we keep the default behavior, and override it for a particular transaction, using left join fetch in HQL. This tells Hibernate to fetch the association eagerly in the first select, using an outer join. In the Criteria query API, you would use setFetchMode(FetchMode.JOIN).

If you want to change the fetching strategy used by get() or load(), you can use a Criteria query. For example:

User user = (User) session.createCriteria(User.class)
                .setFetchMode("permissions", FetchMode.JOIN)
                .add( Restrictions.idEq(userId) )
                .uniqueResult();

This is Hibernate's equivalent of what some ORM solutions call a "fetch plan".

A completely different approach to problems with N+1 selects is to use the second-level cache.

Lazy fetching for collections is implemented using Hibernate's own implementation of persistent collections. However, a different mechanism is needed for lazy behavior in single-ended associations. The target entity of the association must be proxied. Hibernate implements lazy initializing proxies for persistent objects using runtime bytecode enhancement which is accessed via the CGLIB library.

At startup, Hibernate3 generates proxies by default for all persistent classes and uses them to enable lazy fetching of many-to-one and one-to-one associations.

The mapping file may declare an interface to use as the proxy interface for that class, with the proxy attribute. By default, Hibernate uses a subclass of the class. The proxied class must implement a default constructor with at least package visibility. This constructor is recommended for all persistent classes.

There are potential problems to note when extending this approach to polymorphic classes.For example:

<class name="Cat" proxy="Cat">
    ......
    <subclass name="DomesticCat">
        .....
    </subclass>
</class>

首先,Cat实例永远不可以被强制转换为DomesticCat, 即使它本身就是DomesticCat实例。

Cat cat = (Cat) session.load(Cat.class, id);  // instantiate a proxy (does not hit the db)
if ( cat.isDomesticCat() ) {                  // hit the db to initialize the proxy
    DomesticCat dc = (DomesticCat) cat;       // Error!
    ....
}

Secondly, it is possible to break proxy ==:

Cat cat = (Cat) session.load(Cat.class, id);            // instantiate a Cat proxy
DomesticCat dc = 
        (DomesticCat) session.load(DomesticCat.class, id);  // acquire new DomesticCat proxy!
System.out.println(cat==dc);                            // false

虽然如此,但实际情况并没有看上去那么糟糕。虽然我们现在有两个不同的引用,分别指向这两个不同的代理对象, 但实际上,其底层应该是同一个实例对象:

cat.setWeight(11.0);  // hit the db to initialize the proxy
System.out.println( dc.getWeight() );  // 11.0

Third, you cannot use a CGLIB proxy for a final class or a class with any final methods.

Finally, if your persistent object acquires any resources upon instantiation (e.g. in initializers or default constructor), then those resources will also be acquired by the proxy. The proxy class is an actual subclass of the persistent class.

These problems are all due to fundamental limitations in Java's single inheritance model. To avoid these problems your persistent classes must each implement an interface that declares its business methods. You should specify these interfaces in the mapping file where CatImpl implements the interface Cat and DomesticCatImpl implements the interface DomesticCat. For example:

<class name="CatImpl" proxy="Cat">
    ......
    <subclass name="DomesticCatImpl" proxy="DomesticCat">
        .....
    </subclass>
</class>

Then proxies for instances of Cat and DomesticCat can be returned by load() or iterate().

Cat cat = (Cat) session.load(CatImpl.class, catid);
Iterator iter = session.createQuery("from CatImpl as cat where cat.name='fritz'").iterate();
Cat fritz = (Cat) iter.next();

这里,对象之间的关系也将被延迟载入。这就意味着,你应该将属性声明为Cat,而不是CatImpl

Certain operations do not require proxy initialization:

Hibernate将会识别出那些重载了equals()、或hashCode()方法的持久化类。

By choosing lazy="no-proxy" instead of the default lazy="proxy", you can avoid problems associated with typecasting. However, buildtime bytecode instrumentation is required, and all operations will result in immediate proxy initialization.

A LazyInitializationException will be thrown by Hibernate if an uninitialized collection or proxy is accessed outside of the scope of the Session, i.e., when the entity owning the collection or having the reference to the proxy is in the detached state.

Sometimes a proxy or collection needs to be initialized before closing the Session. You can force initialization by calling cat.getSex() or cat.getKittens().size(), for example. However, this can be confusing to readers of the code and it is not convenient for generic code.

The static methods Hibernate.initialize() and Hibernate.isInitialized(), provide the application with a convenient way of working with lazily initialized collections or proxies. Hibernate.initialize(cat) will force the initialization of a proxy, cat, as long as its Session is still open. Hibernate.initialize( cat.getKittens() ) has a similar effect for the collection of kittens.

Another option is to keep the Session open until all required collections and proxies have been loaded. In some application architectures, particularly where the code that accesses data using Hibernate, and the code that uses it are in different application layers or different physical processes, it can be a problem to ensure that the Session is open when a collection is initialized. There are two basic ways to deal with this issue:

Sometimes you do not want to initialize a large collection, but still need some information about it, like its size, for example, or a subset of the data.

你可以使用集合过滤器得到其集合的大小,而不必实例化整个集合:

( (Integer) s.createFilter( collection, "select count(*)" ).list().get(0) ).intValue()

这里的createFilter()方法也可以被用来有效的抓取集合的部分内容,而无需实例化整个集合:

s.createFilter( lazyCollection, "").setFirstResult(0).setMaxResults(10).list();

Using batch fetching, Hibernate can load several uninitialized proxies if one proxy is accessed. Batch fetching is an optimization of the lazy select fetching strategy. There are two ways you can configure batch fetching: on the class level and the collection level.

Batch fetching for classes/entities is easier to understand. Consider the following example: at runtime you have 25 Cat instances loaded in a Session, and each Cat has a reference to its owner, a Person. The Person class is mapped with a proxy, lazy="true". If you now iterate through all cats and call getOwner() on each, Hibernate will, by default, execute 25 SELECT statements to retrieve the proxied owners. You can tune this behavior by specifying a batch-size in the mapping of Person:

<class name="Person" batch-size="10">...</class>

Hibernate will now execute only three queries: the pattern is 10, 10, 5.

You can also enable batch fetching of collections. For example, if each Person has a lazy collection of Cats, and 10 persons are currently loaded in the Session, iterating through all persons will generate 10 SELECTs, one for every call to getCats(). If you enable batch fetching for the cats collection in the mapping of Person, Hibernate can pre-fetch collections:

<class name="Person">
    <set name="cats" batch-size="3">
        ...
    </set>
</class>

如果整个的batch-size是3(笔误?),那么Hibernate将会分四次执行SELECT查询, 按照3、3、3、1的大小分别载入数据。这里的每次载入的数据量还具体依赖于当前Session中未实例化集合的个数。

Batch fetching of collections is particularly useful if you have a nested tree of items, i.e. the typical bill-of-materials pattern. However, a nested set or a materialized path might be a better option for read-mostly trees.

Hibernate3 supports the lazy fetching of individual properties. This optimization technique is also known as fetch groups. Please note that this is mostly a marketing feature; optimizing row reads is much more important than optimization of column reads. However, only loading some properties of a class could be useful in extreme cases. For example, when legacy tables have hundreds of columns and the data model cannot be improved.

可以在映射文件中对特定的属性设置lazy,定义该属性为延迟载入。

<class name="Document">
       <id name="id">
        <generator class="native"/>
    </id>
    <property name="name" not-null="true" length="50"/>
    <property name="summary" not-null="true" length="200" lazy="true"/>
    <property name="text" not-null="true" length="2000" lazy="true"/>
</class>

Lazy property loading requires buildtime bytecode instrumentation. If your persistent classes are not enhanced, Hibernate will ignore lazy property settings and return to immediate fetching.

你可以在Ant的Task中,进行如下定义,对持久类代码加入“二进制指令。”

<target name="instrument" depends="compile">
    <taskdef name="instrument" classname="org.hibernate.tool.instrument.InstrumentTask">
        <classpath path="${jar.path}"/>
        <classpath path="${classes.dir}"/>
        <classpath refid="lib.class.path"/>
    </taskdef>

    <instrument verbose="true">
        <fileset dir="${testclasses.dir}/org/hibernate/auction/model">
            <include name="*.class"/>
        </fileset>
    </instrument>
</target>

A different way of avoiding unnecessary column reads, at least for read-only transactions, is to use the projection features of HQL or Criteria queries. This avoids the need for buildtime bytecode processing and is certainly a preferred solution.

You can force the usual eager fetching of properties using fetch all properties in HQL.

A Hibernate Session is a transaction-level cache of persistent data. It is possible to configure a cluster or JVM-level (SessionFactory-level) cache on a class-by-class and collection-by-collection basis. You can even plug in a clustered cache. Be aware that caches are not aware of changes made to the persistent store by another application. They can, however, be configured to regularly expire cached data.

You have the option to tell Hibernate which caching implementation to use by specifying the name of a class that implements org.hibernate.cache.CacheProvider using the property hibernate.cache.provider_class. Hibernate is bundled with a number of built-in integrations with the open-source cache providers that are listed below. You can also implement your own and plug it in as outlined above. Note that versions prior to 3.2 use EhCache as the default cache provider.


类或者集合映射的“<cache>元素”可以有下列形式:

<cache 
    usage="transactional|read-write|nonstrict-read-write|read-only"  (1)
    region="RegionName"                                              (2)
    include="all|non-lazy"                                           (3)
/>
1

usage(必须)说明了缓存的策略: transactionalread-writenonstrict-read-writeread-only

2

region (optional: defaults to the class or collection role name): specifies the name of the second level cache region

3

include (optional: defaults to all) non-lazy: specifies that properties of the entity mapped with lazy="true" cannot be cached when attribute-level lazy fetching is enabled

Alternatively, you can specify <class-cache> and <collection-cache> elements in hibernate.cfg.xml.

这里的usage 属性指明了缓存并发策略(cache concurrency strategy)

Whenever you pass an object to save(), update() or saveOrUpdate(), and whenever you retrieve an object using load(), get(), list(), iterate() or scroll(), that object is added to the internal cache of the Session.

When flush() is subsequently called, the state of that object will be synchronized with the database. If you do not want this synchronization to occur, or if you are processing a huge number of objects and need to manage memory efficiently, the evict() method can be used to remove the object and its collections from the first-level cache.

ScrollableResult cats = sess.createQuery("from Cat as cat").scroll(); //a huge result set
while ( cats.next() ) {
    Cat cat = (Cat) cats.get(0);
    doSomethingWithACat(cat);
    sess.evict(cat);
}

Session还提供了一个contains()方法,用来判断某个实例是否处于当前session的缓存中。

To evict all objects from the session cache, call Session.clear()

对于二级缓存来说,在SessionFactory中定义了许多方法, 清除缓存中实例、整个类、集合实例或者整个集合。

sessionFactory.evict(Cat.class, catId); //evict a particular Cat
sessionFactory.evict(Cat.class);  //evict all Cats
sessionFactory.evictCollection("Cat.kittens", catId); //evict a particular collection of kittens
sessionFactory.evictCollection("Cat.kittens"); //evict all kitten collections

The CacheMode controls how a particular session interacts with the second-level cache:

如若需要查看二级缓存或查询缓存区域的内容,你可以使用统计(Statistics) API。

Map cacheEntries = sessionFactory.getStatistics()
        .getSecondLevelCacheStatistics(regionName)
        .getEntries();

You will need to enable statistics and, optionally, force Hibernate to keep the cache entries in a more readable format:

hibernate.generate_statistics true
hibernate.cache.use_structured_entries true

Query result sets can also be cached. This is only useful for queries that are run frequently with the same parameters. You will first need to enable the query cache:

hibernate.cache.use_query_cache true

This setting creates two new cache regions: one holding cached query result sets (org.hibernate.cache.StandardQueryCache), the other holding timestamps of the most recent updates to queryable tables (org.hibernate.cache.UpdateTimestampsCache). Note that the query cache does not cache the state of the actual entities in the result set; it caches only identifier values and results of value type. The query cache should always be used in conjunction with the second-level cache.

Most queries do not benefit from caching, so by default, queries are not cached. To enable caching, call Query.setCacheable(true). This call allows the query to look for existing cache results or add its results to the cache when it is executed.

If you require fine-grained control over query cache expiration policies, you can specify a named cache region for a particular query by calling Query.setCacheRegion().

List blogs = sess.createQuery("from Blog blog where blog.blogger = :blogger")
    .setEntity("blogger", blogger)
    .setMaxResults(15)
    .setCacheable(true)
    .setCacheRegion("frontpages")
    .list();

如果查询需要强行刷新其查询缓存区域,那么你应该调用Query.setCacheMode(CacheMode.REFRESH)方法。 这对在其他进程中修改底层数据(例如,不通过Hibernate修改数据),或对那些需要选择性更新特定查询结果集的情况特别有用。 这是对SessionFactory.evictQueries()的更为有效的替代方案,同样可以清除查询缓存区域。

In the previous sections we have covered collections and their applications. In this section we explore some more issues in relation to collections at runtime.

Hibernate定义了三种基本类型的集合:

这个分类是区分了不同的表和外键关系类型,但是它没有告诉我们关系模型的所有内容。 要完全理解他们的关系结构和性能特点,我们必须同时考虑“用于Hibernate更新或删除集合行数据的主键的结构”。 因此得到了如下的分类:

All indexed collections (maps, lists, and arrays) have a primary key consisting of the <key> and <index> columns. In this case, collection updates are extremely efficient. The primary key can be efficiently indexed and a particular row can be efficiently located when Hibernate tries to update or delete it.

Sets have a primary key consisting of <key> and element columns. This can be less efficient for some types of collection element, particularly composite elements or large text or binary fields, as the database may not be able to index a complex primary key as efficiently. However, for one-to-many or many-to-many associations, particularly in the case of synthetic identifiers, it is likely to be just as efficient. If you want SchemaExport to actually create the primary key of a <set>, you must declare all columns as not-null="true".

<idbag> mappings define a surrogate key, so they are efficient to update. In fact, they are the best case.

Bags are the worst case since they permit duplicate element values and, as they have no index column, no primary key can be defined. Hibernate has no way of distinguishing between duplicate rows. Hibernate resolves this problem by completely removing in a single DELETE and recreating the collection whenever it changes. This can be inefficient.

For a one-to-many association, the "primary key" may not be the physical primary key of the database table. Even in this case, the above classification is still useful. It reflects how Hibernate "locates" individual rows of the collection.

没有监测和性能参数而进行优化是毫无意义的。Hibernate为其内部操作提供了一系列的示意图,因此可以从 每个SessionFactory抓取其统计数据。

你可以有两种方式访问SessionFactory的数据记录,第一种就是自己直接调用 sessionFactory.getStatistics()方法读取、显示统计数据。

Hibernate can also use JMX to publish metrics if you enable the StatisticsService MBean. You can enable a single MBean for all your SessionFactory or one per factory. See the following code for minimalistic configuration examples:

// MBean service registration for a specific SessionFactory
Hashtable tb = new Hashtable();
tb.put("type", "statistics");
tb.put("sessionFactory", "myFinancialApp");
ObjectName on = new ObjectName("hibernate", tb); // MBean object name

StatisticsService stats = new StatisticsService(); // MBean implementation
stats.setSessionFactory(sessionFactory); // Bind the stats to a SessionFactory
server.registerMBean(stats, on); // Register the Mbean on the server
// MBean service registration for all SessionFactory's
Hashtable tb = new Hashtable();
tb.put("type", "statistics");
tb.put("sessionFactory", "all");
ObjectName on = new ObjectName("hibernate", tb); // MBean object name

StatisticsService stats = new StatisticsService(); // MBean implementation
server.registerMBean(stats, on); // Register the MBean on the server

You can activate and deactivate the monitoring for a SessionFactory:

Statistics can be reset programmatically using the clear() method. A summary can be sent to a logger (info level) using the logSummary() method.

Hibernate provides a number of metrics, from basic information to more specialized information that is only relevant in certain scenarios. All available counters are described in the Statistics interface API, in three categories:

For example, you can check the cache hit, miss, and put ratio of entities, collections and queries, and the average time a query needs. Be aware that the number of milliseconds is subject to approximation in Java. Hibernate is tied to the JVM precision and on some platforms this might only be accurate to 10 seconds.

Simple getters are used to access the global metrics (i.e. not tied to a particular entity, collection, cache region, etc.). You can access the metrics of a particular entity, collection or cache region through its name, and through its HQL or SQL representation for queries. Please refer to the Statistics, EntityStatistics, CollectionStatistics, SecondLevelCacheStatistics, and QueryStatistics API Javadoc for more information. The following code is a simple example:

Statistics stats = HibernateUtil.sessionFactory.getStatistics();

double queryCacheHitCount  = stats.getQueryCacheHitCount();
double queryCacheMissCount = stats.getQueryCacheMissCount();
double queryCacheHitRatio =
  queryCacheHitCount / (queryCacheHitCount + queryCacheMissCount);

log.info("Query Hit ratio:" + queryCacheHitRatio);

EntityStatistics entityStats =
  stats.getEntityStatistics( Cat.class.getName() );
long changes =
        entityStats.getInsertCount()
        + entityStats.getUpdateCount()
        + entityStats.getDeleteCount();
log.info(Cat.class.getName() + " changed " + changes + "times"  );

You can work on all entities, collections, queries and region caches, by retrieving the list of names of entities, collections, queries and region caches using the following methods: getQueries(), getEntityNames(), getCollectionRoleNames(), and getSecondLevelCacheRegionNames().

Roundtrip engineering with Hibernate is possible using a set of Eclipse plugins, commandline tools, and Ant tasks.

Hibernate Tools currently include plugins for the Eclipse IDE as well as Ant tasks for reverse engineering of existing databases:

  • Mapping Editor: an editor for Hibernate XML mapping files that supports auto-completion and syntax highlighting. It also supports semantic auto-completion for class names and property/field names, making it more versatile than a normal XML editor.

  • Console: the console is a new view in Eclipse. In addition to a tree overview of your console configurations, you are also provided with an interactive view of your persistent classes and their relationships. The console allows you to execute HQL queries against your database and browse the result directly in Eclipse.

  • Development Wizards: several wizards are provided with the Hibernate Eclipse tools. You can use a wizard to quickly generate Hibernate configuration (cfg.xml) files, or to reverse engineer an existing database schema into POJO source files and Hibernate mapping files. The reverse engineering wizard supports customizable templates.

Please refer to the Hibernate Tools package documentation for more information.

However, the Hibernate main package comes bundled with an integrated tool : SchemaExport aka hbm2ddl.It can even be used from "inside" Hibernate.

DDL can be generated from your mapping files by a Hibernate utility. The generated schema includes referential integrity constraints, primary and foreign keys, for entity and collection tables. Tables and sequences are also created for mapped identifier generators.

You must specify a SQL Dialect via the hibernate.dialect property when using this tool, as DDL is highly vendor-specific.

First, you must customize your mapping files to improve the generated schema. The next section covers schema customization.

Many Hibernate mapping elements define optional attributes named length, precision and scale. You can set the length, precision and scale of a column with this attribute.

<property name="zip" length="5"/>
<property name="balance" precision="12" scale="2"/>

Some tags also accept a not-null attribute for generating a NOT NULL constraint on table columns, and a unique attribute for generating UNIQUE constraint on table columns.

<many-to-one name="bar" column="barId" not-null="true"/>
<element column="serialNumber" type="long" not-null="true" unique="true"/>

A unique-key attribute can be used to group columns in a single, unique key constraint. Currently, the specified value of the unique-key attribute is not used to name the constraint in the generated DDL. It is only used to group the columns in the mapping file.

<many-to-one name="org" column="orgId" unique-key="OrgEmployeeId"/>
<property name="employeeId" unique-key="OrgEmployee"/>

An index attribute specifies the name of an index that will be created using the mapped column or columns. Multiple columns can be grouped into the same index by simply specifying the same index name.

<property name="lastName" index="CustName"/>
<property name="firstName" index="CustName"/>

A foreign-key attribute can be used to override the name of any generated foreign key constraint.

<many-to-one name="bar" column="barId" foreign-key="FKFooBar"/>

很多映射元素还接受<column>子元素。这在定义跨越多字段的类型时特别有用。

<property name="name" type="my.customtypes.Name"/>
    <column name="last" not-null="true" index="bar_idx" length="30"/>
    <column name="first" not-null="true" index="bar_idx" length="20"/>
    <column name="initial"/>
</property>

The default attribute allows you to specify a default value for a column.You should assign the same value to the mapped property before saving a new instance of the mapped class.

<property name="credits" type="integer" insert="false">
    <column name="credits" default="10"/>
</property>
<version name="version" type="integer" insert="false">
    <column name="version" default="0"/>
</property>

sql-type属性允许用户覆盖默认的Hibernate类型到SQL数据类型的映射。

<property name="balance" type="float">
    <column name="balance" sql-type="decimal(13,3)"/>
</property>

check属性允许用户指定一个约束检查。

<property name="foo" type="integer">
    <column name="foo" check="foo > 10"/>
</property>
<class name="Foo" table="foos" check="bar < 100.0">
    ...
    <property name="bar" type="float"/>
</class>

The following table summarizes these optional attributes.


<comment>元素可以让你在生成的schema中加入注释。

<class name="Customer" table="CurCust">
    <comment>Current customers only</comment>
    ...
</class>
<property name="balance">
    <column name="bal">
        <comment>Balance in USD</comment>
    </column>
</property>

This results in a comment on table or comment on column statement in the generated DDL where supported.

One of the first things that new users want to do with Hibernate is to model a parent/child type relationship. There are two different approaches to this. The most convenient approach, especially for new users, is to model both Parent and Child as entity classes with a <one-to-many> association from Parent to Child. The alternative approach is to declare the Child as a <composite-element>. The default semantics of a one-to-many association in Hibernate are much less close to the usual semantics of a parent/child relationship than those of a composite element mapping. We will explain how to use a bidirectional one-to-many association with cascades to model a parent/child relationship efficiently and elegantly.

假设我们要实现一个简单的从Parent到Child的<one-to-many>关联。

<set name="children">
    <key column="parent_id"/>
    <one-to-many class="Child"/>
</set>

If we were to execute the following code:

Parent p = .....;
Child c = new Child();
p.getChildren().add(c);
session.save(c);
session.flush();

Hibernate会产生两条SQL语句:

This is not only inefficient, but also violates any NOT NULL constraint on the parent_id column. You can fix the nullability constraint violation by specifying not-null="true" in the collection mapping:

<set name="children">
    <key column="parent_id" not-null="true"/>
    <one-to-many class="Child"/>
</set>

然而,这并非是推荐的解决方法。

The underlying cause of this behavior is that the link (the foreign key parent_id) from p to c is not considered part of the state of the Child object and is therefore not created in the INSERT. The solution is to make the link part of the Child mapping.

<many-to-one name="parent" column="parent_id" not-null="true"/>

You also need to add the parent property to the Child class.

Now that the Child entity is managing the state of the link, we tell the collection not to update the link. We use the inverse attribute to do this:

<set name="children" inverse="true">
    <key column="parent_id"/>
    <one-to-many class="Child"/>
</set>

The following code would be used to add a new Child:

Parent p = (Parent) session.load(Parent.class, pid);
Child c = new Child();
c.setParent(p);
p.getChildren().add(c);
session.save(c);
session.flush();

Only one SQL INSERT would now be issued.

You could also create an addChild() method of Parent.

public void addChild(Child c) {
    c.setParent(this);
    children.add(c);
}

The code to add a Child looks like this:

Parent p = (Parent) session.load(Parent.class, pid);
Child c = new Child();
p.addChild(c);
session.save(c);
session.flush();

You can address the frustrations of the explicit call to save() by using cascades.

<set name="children" inverse="true" cascade="all">
    <key column="parent_id"/>
    <one-to-many class="Child"/>
</set>

This simplifies the code above to:

Parent p = (Parent) session.load(Parent.class, pid);
Child c = new Child();
p.addChild(c);
session.flush();

Similarly, we do not need to iterate over the children when saving or deleting a Parent. The following removes p and all its children from the database.

Parent p = (Parent) session.load(Parent.class, pid);
session.delete(p);
session.flush();

However, the following code:

Parent p = (Parent) session.load(Parent.class, pid);
Child c = (Child) p.getChildren().iterator().next();
p.getChildren().remove(c);
c.setParent(null);
session.flush();

will not remove c from the database. In this case, it will only remove the link to p and cause a NOT NULL constraint violation. You need to explicitly delete() the Child.

Parent p = (Parent) session.load(Parent.class, pid);
Child c = (Child) p.getChildren().iterator().next();
p.getChildren().remove(c);
session.delete(c);
session.flush();

In our case, a Child cannot exist without its parent. So if we remove a Child from the collection, we do want it to be deleted. To do this, we must use cascade="all-delete-orphan".

<set name="children" inverse="true" cascade="all-delete-orphan">
    <key column="parent_id"/>
    <one-to-many class="Child"/>
</set>

Even though the collection mapping specifies inverse="true", cascades are still processed by iterating the collection elements. If you need an object be saved, deleted or updated by cascade, you must add it to the collection. It is not enough to simply call setParent().

Suppose we loaded up a Parent in one Session, made some changes in a UI action and wanted to persist these changes in a new session by calling update(). The Parent will contain a collection of children and, since the cascading update is enabled, Hibernate needs to know which children are newly instantiated and which represent existing rows in the database. We will also assume that both Parent and Child have generated identifier properties of type Long. Hibernate will use the identifier and version/timestamp property value to determine which of the children are new. (See 第 10.7 节 “自动状态检测”.) In Hibernate3, it is no longer necessary to specify an unsaved-value explicitly.

The following code will update parent and child and insert newChild:

//parent and child were both loaded in a previous session
parent.addChild(child);
Child newChild = new Child();
parent.addChild(newChild);
session.update(parent);
session.flush();

This may be suitable for the case of a generated identifier, but what about assigned identifiers and composite identifiers? This is more difficult, since Hibernate cannot use the identifier property to distinguish between a newly instantiated object, with an identifier assigned by the user, and an object loaded in a previous session. In this case, Hibernate will either use the timestamp or version property, or will actually query the second-level cache or, worst case, the database, to see if the row exists.

The following class demonstrates some of the kinds of things we can do with these classes using Hibernate:

package eg;

import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Calendar;
import java.util.Iterator;
import java.util.List;

import org.hibernate.HibernateException;
import org.hibernate.Query;
import org.hibernate.Session;
import org.hibernate.SessionFactory;
import org.hibernate.Transaction;
import org.hibernate.cfg.Configuration;
import org.hibernate.tool.hbm2ddl.SchemaExport;

public class BlogMain {
    
    private SessionFactory _sessions;
    
    public void configure() throws HibernateException {
        _sessions = new Configuration()
            .addClass(Blog.class)
            .addClass(BlogItem.class)
            .buildSessionFactory();
    }
    
    public void exportTables() throws HibernateException {
        Configuration cfg = new Configuration()
            .addClass(Blog.class)
            .addClass(BlogItem.class);
        new SchemaExport(cfg).create(true, true);
    }
    
    public Blog createBlog(String name) throws HibernateException {
        
        Blog blog = new Blog();
        blog.setName(name);
        blog.setItems( new ArrayList() );
        
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            session.persist(blog);
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
        return blog;
    }
    
    public BlogItem createBlogItem(Blog blog, String title, String text)
                        throws HibernateException {
        
        BlogItem item = new BlogItem();
        item.setTitle(title);
        item.setText(text);
        item.setBlog(blog);
        item.setDatetime( Calendar.getInstance() );
        blog.getItems().add(item);
        
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            session.update(blog);
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
        return item;
    }
    
    public BlogItem createBlogItem(Long blogid, String title, String text)
                        throws HibernateException {
        
        BlogItem item = new BlogItem();
        item.setTitle(title);
        item.setText(text);
        item.setDatetime( Calendar.getInstance() );
        
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            Blog blog = (Blog) session.load(Blog.class, blogid);
            item.setBlog(blog);
            blog.getItems().add(item);
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
        return item;
    }
    
    public void updateBlogItem(BlogItem item, String text)
                    throws HibernateException {
        
        item.setText(text);
        
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            session.update(item);
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
    }
    
    public void updateBlogItem(Long itemid, String text)
                    throws HibernateException {
    
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            BlogItem item = (BlogItem) session.load(BlogItem.class, itemid);
            item.setText(text);
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
    }
    
    public List listAllBlogNamesAndItemCounts(int max)
                    throws HibernateException {
        
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        List result = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            Query q = session.createQuery(
                "select blog.id, blog.name, count(blogItem) " +
                "from Blog as blog " +
                "left outer join blog.items as blogItem " +
                "group by blog.name, blog.id " +
                "order by max(blogItem.datetime)"
            );
            q.setMaxResults(max);
            result = q.list();
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
        return result;
    }
    
    public Blog getBlogAndAllItems(Long blogid)
                    throws HibernateException {
        
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        Blog blog = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            Query q = session.createQuery(
                "from Blog as blog " +
                "left outer join fetch blog.items " +
                "where blog.id = :blogid"
            );
            q.setParameter("blogid", blogid);
            blog  = (Blog) q.uniqueResult();
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
        return blog;
    }
    
    public List listBlogsAndRecentItems() throws HibernateException {
        
        Session session = _sessions.openSession();
        Transaction tx = null;
        List result = null;
        try {
            tx = session.beginTransaction();
            Query q = session.createQuery(
                "from Blog as blog " +
                "inner join blog.items as blogItem " +
                "where blogItem.datetime > :minDate"
            );

            Calendar cal = Calendar.getInstance();
            cal.roll(Calendar.MONTH, false);
            q.setCalendar("minDate", cal);
            
            result = q.list();
            tx.commit();
        }
        catch (HibernateException he) {
            if (tx!=null) tx.rollback();
            throw he;
        }
        finally {
            session.close();
        }
        return result;
    }
}

This chapters explores some more complex association mappings.

The following model of the relationship between Employer and Employee uses an entity class (Employment) to represent the association. You can do this when there might be more than one period of employment for the same two parties. Components are used to model monetary values and employee names.

Here is a possible mapping document:

<hibernate-mapping>
        
    <class name="Employer" table="employers">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence">
                <param name="sequence">employer_id_seq</param>
            </generator>
        </id>
        <property name="name"/>
    </class>

    <class name="Employment" table="employment_periods">

        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence">
                <param name="sequence">employment_id_seq</param>
            </generator>
        </id>
        <property name="startDate" column="start_date"/>
        <property name="endDate" column="end_date"/>

        <component name="hourlyRate" class="MonetaryAmount">
            <property name="amount">
                <column name="hourly_rate" sql-type="NUMERIC(12, 2)"/>
            </property>
            <property name="currency" length="12"/>
        </component>

        <many-to-one name="employer" column="employer_id" not-null="true"/>
        <many-to-one name="employee" column="employee_id" not-null="true"/>

    </class>

    <class name="Employee" table="employees">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="sequence">
                <param name="sequence">employee_id_seq</param>
            </generator>
        </id>
        <property name="taxfileNumber"/>
        <component name="name" class="Name">
            <property name="firstName"/>
            <property name="initial"/>
            <property name="lastName"/>
        </component>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

Here is the table schema generated by SchemaExport.

create table employers (
    id BIGINT not null, 
    name VARCHAR(255), 
    primary key (id)
)

create table employment_periods (
    id BIGINT not null,
    hourly_rate NUMERIC(12, 2),
    currency VARCHAR(12), 
    employee_id BIGINT not null, 
    employer_id BIGINT not null, 
    end_date TIMESTAMP, 
    start_date TIMESTAMP, 
    primary key (id)
)

create table employees (
    id BIGINT not null, 
    firstName VARCHAR(255), 
    initial CHAR(1), 
    lastName VARCHAR(255), 
    taxfileNumber VARCHAR(255), 
    primary key (id)
)

alter table employment_periods 
    add constraint employment_periodsFK0 foreign key (employer_id) references employers
alter table employment_periods 
    add constraint employment_periodsFK1 foreign key (employee_id) references employees
create sequence employee_id_seq
create sequence employment_id_seq
create sequence employer_id_seq

Consider the following model of the relationships between Work, Author and Person. In the example, the relationship between Work and Author is represented as a many-to-many association and the relationship between Author and Person is represented as one-to-one association. Another possibility would be to have Author extend Person.

下面的映射文件正确的描述了这些关系:

<hibernate-mapping>

    <class name="Work" table="works" discriminator-value="W">

        <id name="id" column="id">
            <generator class="native"/>
        </id>
        <discriminator column="type" type="character"/>

        <property name="title"/>
        <set name="authors" table="author_work">
            <key column name="work_id"/>
            <many-to-many class="Author" column name="author_id"/>
        </set>

        <subclass name="Book" discriminator-value="B">
            <property name="text"/>
        </subclass>

        <subclass name="Song" discriminator-value="S">
            <property name="tempo"/>
            <property name="genre"/>
        </subclass>

    </class>

    <class name="Author" table="authors">

        <id name="id" column="id">
            <!-- The Author must have the same identifier as the Person -->
            <generator class="assigned"/> 
        </id>

        <property name="alias"/>
        <one-to-one name="person" constrained="true"/>

        <set name="works" table="author_work" inverse="true">
            <key column="author_id"/>
            <many-to-many class="Work" column="work_id"/>
        </set>

    </class>

    <class name="Person" table="persons">
        <id name="id" column="id">
            <generator class="native"/>
        </id>
        <property name="name"/>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

There are four tables in this mapping: works, authors and persons hold work, author and person data respectively. author_work is an association table linking authors to works. Here is the table schema, as generated by SchemaExport:

create table works (
    id BIGINT not null generated by default as identity, 
    tempo FLOAT, 
    genre VARCHAR(255), 
    text INTEGER, 
    title VARCHAR(255), 
    type CHAR(1) not null, 
    primary key (id)
)

create table author_work (
    author_id BIGINT not null, 
    work_id BIGINT not null, 
    primary key (work_id, author_id)
)

create table authors (
    id BIGINT not null generated by default as identity, 
    alias VARCHAR(255), 
    primary key (id)
)

create table persons (
    id BIGINT not null generated by default as identity, 
    name VARCHAR(255), 
    primary key (id)
)

alter table authors 
    add constraint authorsFK0 foreign key (id) references persons
alter table author_work 
    add constraint author_workFK0 foreign key (author_id) references authors
alter table author_work
    add constraint author_workFK1 foreign key (work_id) references works

In this section we consider a model of the relationships between Customer, Order, Line Item and Product. There is a one-to-many association between Customer and Order, but how can you represent Order / LineItem / Product? In the example, LineItem is mapped as an association class representing the many-to-many association between Order and Product. In Hibernate this is called a composite element.

The mapping document will look like this:

<hibernate-mapping>

    <class name="Customer" table="customers">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="native"/>
        </id>
        <property name="name"/>
        <set name="orders" inverse="true">
            <key column="customer_id"/>
            <one-to-many class="Order"/>
        </set>
    </class>

    <class name="Order" table="orders">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="native"/>
        </id>
        <property name="date"/>
        <many-to-one name="customer" column="customer_id"/>
        <list name="lineItems" table="line_items">
            <key column="order_id"/>
            <list-index column="line_number"/>
            <composite-element class="LineItem">
                <property name="quantity"/>
                <many-to-one name="product" column="product_id"/>
            </composite-element>
        </list>
    </class>

    <class name="Product" table="products">
        <id name="id">
            <generator class="native"/>
        </id>
        <property name="serialNumber"/>
    </class>

</hibernate-mapping>

customers, orders, line_itemsproducts 分别保存着customer, order, order line item 和 product的数据。 line_items也作为连接orders 和 products的关联表。

create table customers (
    id BIGINT not null generated by default as identity, 
    name VARCHAR(255), 
    primary key (id)
)

create table orders (
    id BIGINT not null generated by default as identity, 
    customer_id BIGINT, 
    date TIMESTAMP, 
    primary key (id)
)

create table line_items (
    line_number INTEGER not null, 
    order_id BIGINT not null, 
    product_id BIGINT, 
    quantity INTEGER, 
    primary key (order_id, line_number)
)

create table products (
    id BIGINT not null generated by default as identity, 
    serialNumber VARCHAR(255), 
    primary key (id)
)

alter table orders 
    add constraint ordersFK0 foreign key (customer_id) references customers
alter table line_items
    add constraint line_itemsFK0 foreign key (product_id) references products
alter table line_items
    add constraint line_itemsFK1 foreign key (order_id) references orders

These examples are available from the Hibernate test suite. You will find many other useful example mappings there by searching in the test folder of the Hibernate distribution.

<class name="Customer">

    <id name="customerId"
        length="10">
        <generator class="assigned"/>
    </id>

    <property name="name" not-null="true" length="100"/>
    <property name="address" not-null="true" length="200"/>

    <list name="orders"
            inverse="true"
            cascade="save-update">
        <key column="customerId"/>
        <index column="orderNumber"/>
        <one-to-many class="Order"/>
    </list>

</class>

<class name="Order" table="CustomerOrder" lazy="true">
    <synchronize table="LineItem"/>
    <synchronize table="Product"/>
    
    <composite-id name="id" 
            class="Order$Id">
        <key-property name="customerId" length="10"/>
        <key-property name="orderNumber"/>
    </composite-id>
    
    <property name="orderDate" 
            type="calendar_date"
            not-null="true"/>
    
    <property name="total">
        <formula>
            ( select sum(li.quantity*p.price) 
            from LineItem li, Product p 
            where li.productId = p.productId 
                and li.customerId = customerId 
                and li.orderNumber = orderNumber )
        </formula>
    </property>
    
    <many-to-one name="customer"
            column="customerId"
            insert="false"
            update="false" 
            not-null="true"/>
        
    <bag name="lineItems"
            fetch="join" 
            inverse="true"
            cascade="save-update">
        <key>
            <column name="customerId"/>
            <column name="orderNumber"/>
        </key>
        <one-to-many class="LineItem"/>
    </bag>
    
</class>
    
<class name="LineItem">
    
    <composite-id name="id" 
            class="LineItem$Id">
        <key-property name="customerId" length="10"/>
        <key-property name="orderNumber"/>
        <key-property name="productId" length="10"/>
    </composite-id>
    
    <property name="quantity"/>
    
    <many-to-one name="order"
            insert="false"
            update="false" 
            not-null="true">
        <column name="customerId"/>
        <column name="orderNumber"/>
    </many-to-one>
    
    <many-to-one name="product"
            insert="false"
            update="false" 
            not-null="true"
            column="productId"/>
        
</class>

<class name="Product">
    <synchronize table="LineItem"/>

    <id name="productId"
        length="10">
        <generator class="assigned"/>
    </id>
    
    <property name="description" 
        not-null="true" 
        length="200"/>
    <property name="price" length="3"/>
    <property name="numberAvailable"/>
    
    <property name="numberOrdered">
        <formula>
            ( select sum(li.quantity) 
            from LineItem li 
            where li.productId = productId )
        </formula>
    </property>
    
</class>
Write fine-grained classes and map them using <component>:

使用一个Address持久类来封装 street, suburb, state, postcode. 这将有利于代码重用和简化代码重构(refactoring)的工作。

Declare identifier properties on persistent classes:

Hibernate makes identifier properties optional. There are a range of reasons why you should use them. We recommend that identifiers be 'synthetic', that is, generated with no business meaning.

Identify natural keys:

对所有的实体都标识出自然键,用<natural-id>进行映射。实现equals()hashCode(),在其中用组成自然键的属性进行比较。

Place each class mapping in its own file:

Do not use a single monolithic mapping document. Map com.eg.Foo in the file com/eg/Foo.hbm.xml. This makes sense, particularly in a team environment.

Load mappings as resources:

把映射文件和他们的映射类放在一起进行部署。

Consider externalizing query strings:

This is recommended if your queries call non-ANSI-standard SQL functions. Externalizing the query strings to mapping files will make the application more portable.

使用绑定变量

As in JDBC, always replace non-constant values by "?". Do not use string manipulation to bind a non-constant value in a query. You should also consider using named parameters in queries.

Do not manage your own JDBC connections:

Hibernate allows the application to manage JDBC connections, but his approach should be considered a last-resort. If you cannot use the built-in connection providers, consider providing your own implementation of org.hibernate.connection.ConnectionProvider.

Consider using a custom type:

Suppose you have a Java type from a library that needs to be persisted but does not provide the accessors needed to map it as a component. You should consider implementing org.hibernate.UserType. This approach frees the application code from implementing transformations to/from a Hibernate type.

Use hand-coded JDBC in bottlenecks:

In performance-critical areas of the system, some kinds of operations might benefit from direct JDBC. Do not assume, however, that JDBC is necessarily faster. Please wait until you know something is a bottleneck. If you need to use direct JDBC, you can open a Hibernate Session and usingfile:///usr/share/doc/HTML/en-US/index.html that JDBC connection. This way you can still use the same transaction strategy and underlying connection provider.

Understand Session flushing:

Sometimes the Session synchronizes its persistent state with the database. Performance will be affected if this process occurs too often. You can sometimes minimize unnecessary flushing by disabling automatic flushing, or even by changing the order of queries and other operations within a particular transaction.

In a three tiered architecture, consider using detached objects:

When using a servlet/session bean architecture, you can pass persistent objects loaded in the session bean to and from the servlet/JSP layer. Use a new session to service each request. Use Session.merge() or Session.saveOrUpdate() to synchronize objects with the database.

In a two tiered architecture, consider using long persistence contexts:

Database Transactions have to be as short as possible for best scalability. However, it is often necessary to implement long running application transactions, a single unit-of-work from the point of view of a user. An application transaction might span several client request/response cycles. It is common to use detached objects to implement application transactions. An appropriate alternative in a two tiered architecture, is to maintain a single open persistence contact session for the whole life cycle of the application transaction. Then simply disconnect from the JDBC connection at the end of each request and reconnect at the beginning of the subsequent request. Never share a single session across more than one application transaction or you will be working with stale data.

Do not treat exceptions as recoverable:

This is more of a necessary practice than a "best" practice. When an exception occurs, roll back the Transaction and close the Session. If you do not do this, Hibernate cannot guarantee that in-memory state accurately represents the persistent state. For example, do not use Session.load() to determine if an instance with the given identifier exists on the database; use Session.get() or a query instead.

Prefer lazy fetching for associations:

Use eager fetching sparingly. Use proxies and lazy collections for most associations to classes that are not likely to be completely held in the second-level cache. For associations to cached classes, where there is an a extremely high probability of a cache hit, explicitly disable eager fetching using lazy="false". When join fetching is appropriate to a particular use case, use a query with a left join fetch.

Use the open session in view pattern, or a disciplined assembly phase to avoid problems with unfetched data:

Hibernate frees the developer from writing tedious Data Transfer Objects (DTO). In a traditional EJB architecture, DTOs serve dual purposes: first, they work around the problem that entity beans are not serializable; second, they implicitly define an assembly phase where all data to be used by the view is fetched and marshalled into the DTOs before returning control to the presentation tier. Hibernate eliminates the first purpose. Unless you are prepared to hold the persistence context (the session) open across the view rendering process, you will still need an assembly phase. Think of your business methods as having a strict contract with the presentation tier about what data is available in the detached objects. This is not a limitation of Hibernate. It is a fundamental requirement of safe transactional data access.

Consider abstracting your business logic from Hibernate:

Hide Hibernate data-access code behind an interface. Combine the DAO and Thread Local Session patterns. You can even have some classes persisted by handcoded JDBC associated to Hibernate via a UserType. This advice is, however, intended for "sufficiently large" applications. It is not appropriate for an application with five tables.

Do not use exotic association mappings:

Practical test cases for real many-to-many associations are rare. Most of the time you need additional information stored in the "link table". In this case, it is much better to use two one-to-many associations to an intermediate link class. In fact, most associations are one-to-many and many-to-one. For this reason, you should proceed cautiously when using any other association style.

Prefer bidirectional associations:

单向关联更加难于查询。在大型应用中,几乎所有的关联必须在查询中可以双向导航。

Originally, Hibernate would always require that users specify which dialect to use. In the case of users looking to simultaneously target multiple databases with their build that was problematic. Generally this required their users to configure the Hibernate dialect or defining their own method of setting that value.

Starting with version 3.2, Hibernate introduced the notion of automatically detecting the dialect to use based on the java.sql.DatabaseMetaData obtained from a java.sql.Connection to that database. This was much better, expect that this resolution was limited to databases Hibernate know about ahead of time and was in no way configurable or overrideable.

Starting with version 3.3, Hibernate has a fare more powerful way to automatically determine which dialect to should be used by relying on a series of delegates which implement the org.hibernate.dialect.resolver.DialectResolver which defines only a single method:

public Dialect resolveDialect(DatabaseMetaData metaData) throws JDBCConnectionException

. The basic contract here is that if the resolver 'understands' the given database metadata then it returns the corresponding Dialect; if not it returns null and the process continues to the next resolver. The signature also identifies org.hibernate.exception.JDBCConnectionException as possibly being thrown. A JDBCConnectionException here is interpreted to imply a "non transient" (aka non-recoverable) connection problem and is used to indicate an immediate stop to resolution attempts. All other exceptions result in a warning and continuing on to the next resolver.

The cool part about these resolvers is that users can also register their own custom resolvers which will be processed ahead of the built-in Hibernate ones. This might be useful in a number of different situations: it allows easy integration for auto-detection of dialects beyond those shipped with HIbernate itself; it allows you to specify to use a custom dialect when a particular database is recognized; etc. To register one or more resolvers, simply specify them (seperated by commas, tabs or spaces) using the 'hibernate.dialect_resolvers' configuration setting (see the DIALECT_RESOLVERS constant on org.hibernate.cfg.Environment).

When considering portability between databases, another important decision is selecting the identifier generation stratagy you want to use. Originally Hibernate provided the native generator for this purpose, which was intended to select between a sequence, identity, or table strategy depending on the capability of the underlying database. However, an insidious implication of this approach comes about when targtetting some databases which support identity generation and some which do not. identity generation relies on the SQL definition of an IDENTITY (or auto-increment) column to manage the identifier value; it is what is known as a post-insert generation strategy becauase the insert must actually happen before we can know the identifier value. Because Hibernate relies on this identifier value to uniquely reference entities within a persistence context it must then issue the insert immediately when the users requests the entitiy be associated with the session (like via save() e.g.) regardless of current transactional semantics.

The underlying issue is that the actual semanctics of the application itself changes in these cases.

Starting with version 3.2.3, Hibernate comes with a set of enhanced identifier generators targetting portability in a much different way.

注意

There are specifically 2 bundled enhancedgenerators:

  • org.hibernate.id.enhanced.SequenceStyleGenerator

  • org.hibernate.id.enhanced.TableGenerator

The idea behind these generators is to port the actual semantics of the identifer value generation to the different databases. For example, the org.hibernate.id.enhanced.SequenceStyleGenerator mimics the behavior of a sequence on databases which do not support sequences by using a table.